Self, No Self, What's a Self? Buddhist Teachings on the Self. Philosophers eastern and western have wrestled with the concept of self for many centuries.
What is the self? The Buddha taught a doctrine called anatta, which is often defined as "no-self," or the teaching that the sense of being a permanent, autonomous self is an illusion. This does not fit our ordinary experience. Am I not me? Sutta structure. Eight Consciousnesses. The eightfold network of primary consciousnesses All surviving schools of buddhist thought accept – "in common" – the existence of the first six primary consciousnesses (Sanskrit: vijñāna, Tibetan: རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: rnam-shes). The internally coherent Yogācāra school associated with Maitreya, Asaṅga, and Vasubandhu, however, uniquely – or "uncommonly" – also posits the existence of two additional primary consciousnesses, kliṣṭamanas and ālayavijñāna, in order to explain the workings of karma. The first six of these primary consciousnesses comprise the five sensory faculties together with mental consciousness, which is counted as the sixth. According to Gareth Sparham, The ālaya-vijñāna doctrine arose on the Indian subcontinent about one thousand years before Tsong kha pa.
Origins and development Vāsanā. Vāsanā (Sanskrit; Devanagari: वासना) is a behavioural tendency or karmic imprint which influences the present behaviour of a person.
It is a technical term in Dharmic Traditions, particularly Buddhist philosophy and Advaita Vedanta. Nomenclature, orthography and etymology Vāsanā (Devanagari: वासना, Tibetan: བག་ཆགས, Wylie: bag chags) and its near homonym vasana (Devanagari: वसन) are from the same Indo-European linguistic root, sharing a common theme of 'dwelling' or 'abiding'. Yogacara. Yogācāra discourse explains how our human experience is constructed by mind.
Nomenclature, orthography and etymology Sanskrit: Yogācāra (योगाचार), Vijñānavāda (विज्ञानवाद), Vijñapti-mātra, Vijñapti-mātratā, or CittamātraChinese: Wéishí Zōng (唯識宗 "Consciousness-Only School"), Wéishí Yújiāxíng Pài (唯識瑜伽行派 "Consciousness-Only Yogācāra School"), Fǎxiàng Zōng (法相宗, "Dharmalakṣaṇa School"), Cí'ēn Zōng (慈恩宗 "Ci'en School")Japanese: Yuishiki (唯識 "Consciousness-Only"), Yugagyō (瑜伽行 "Yogācāra School")Korean: Yusig Jong (유식종 "Consciousness-Only School"), Yugahaeng Pa (유가행파 "Yogācāra School"), Yusig-Yugahaeng Pa (유식유가행파 "Consciousness-Only Yogācāra School")Vietnamese: Duy Thức Tông ("Consciousness-Only School"), Du-già Hành Tông ("Yogācāra School")Tibetan: sems-tsamMongolian: егүзэр, yeguzerEnglish: Yoga Practice School, Consciousness-Only School, Subjective Realism, Mind Only School.
Dharmakāya. The Dharmakāya (Sanskrit: धर्म काय; Pali: धम्म कय, lit.
"truth body" or "reality body") is one of the three bodies (Trikaya) of the Buddha in Mahayana Buddhism. Dharmakaya constitutes the unmanifested, "inconceivable" (Sanskrit: acintya) aspect of a Buddha, out of which Buddhas arise and to which they return after their dissolution. Buddha-nature. Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms,[note 1] most notably Tathāgatagarbha and Buddhadhātu.
[note 2] Tathāgatagarbha means "the womb" or "embryo" (garbha) of the "thus-gone" (tathagata),[note 3] or "containing a tathagata", while Buddhadhātu literally means "Buddha-realm" or "Buddha-substrate". [note 4] Etymology Tathāgatagarbha The term tathāgatagarbha may mean "embryonic tathāgata", "womb of the tathāgata", or "containing a tathagata".
The Significance Of 'Tathagatagarbha' The well-known motto of Ch'an Buddhism is that "perceiving the true self, one becomes a Buddha.
" The "true self" signifies the Buddha nature inherent in all sentient beings. The discovering of the "true self" has become the single most important pursuit of the Buddhist, especially in Sino-Japanese Buddhism. On the contrary, early Buddhism teaches that ultimately no substantial self (i.e., 'anatman') can be found, since the self is nothing but the union of the five aggregates. Modern Buddhologists as well as the Buddhists have been intrigued by the inconsistency that one single tradition teaches both that there is no self on the one hand, and that the goal of religious life is to discover the true self, on the other hand. Kleshas (Buddhism) Saṃjñā. Saṃjñā (Sanskrit; Pali: sañña) is a Buddhist term that is typically translated as "perception" or "cognition.
" It can be defined as grasping at the distinguishing features or characteristics. Saṃjñā is identified within the Buddhist teachings as follows: Vijñāna. Vijñāna (Sanskrit; Devanagari: विज्ञान) or viññāṇa (Pāli; Devanagari: विञ्ञाण) is translated as "consciousness," "life force," "mind," or "discernment.
" Buddhism This section considers the Buddhist concept primarily in terms of Early Buddhism's Pali literature as well as in the literature of other Buddhist schools. Pali literature Mindstream. Mindstream in Buddhist philosophy is the moment-to-moment continuum (Sanskrit: saṃtāna) of awareness.
There are a number of terms in the Buddhist literature that may be rendered as mindstream. For these, see below. The mindstream doctrine, like most Buddhist doctrines, is not homogeneous and shows historical development, different applications according to context and varied definitions employed by different Buddhist traditions. Mahamudra. Mahāmudrā (Sanskrit, Tibetan: Chagchen, Wylie: phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo, Wylie: phyag rgya chen po) literally means "great seal" or "great symbol. " It "is a multivalent term of great importance in later Indian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism" which "also occurs occasionally in Hindu and East Asian Buddhist esotericism. " Dzogchen. According to Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, Dzogchen (Rdzogs chen or Atiyoga) is the natural, primordial state or natural condition, and a body of teachings and meditation practices aimed at realizing that condition.
Dzogchen, or "Great Perfection", is a central teaching of the Nyingma school also practiced by adherents of other Tibetan Buddhist sects. According to Dzogchen literature, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path to enlightenment. From the perspective of Dzogchen, the ultimate nature of all sentient beings is said to be pure, all-encompassing, primordial clarity or naturally occurring timeless clarity. This intrinsic clarity has no form of its own and yet is capable of perceiving, experiencing, reflecting, or expressing all form.
It does so without being affected by those forms in any ultimate, permanent way. Nomenclature and etymology Maha Ati Esoteric transmission Background Indian originators Prahevajra (Tib. Tibet Padmasambhava (Tib. About.com: About.com: Introduction to the Buddhist Understanding of Karma. Karma is a word everyone knows, yet few in the West understand what it means. Westerners too often think it means "fate" or is some kind of cosmic justice system. This is not a Buddhist understanding of karma, however. Karma is a Sanskrit word that means "action. " Sometimes you might see the Pali spelling, kamma, which means the same thing. In Buddhism, karma has a more specific meaning, which is volitional or willful action. Sometimes Westerners use the word karma to mean the result of karma. Teachings on the laws of karma originated in Hinduism, but Buddhists understand karma somewhat differently from Hindus.
The Liberating Potential of Karma Theravada Buddhist teacher Thanissaro Bhikkhu explains some of these differences in this illuminating essay on karma. Self, No Self, What's a Self? Buddhist Teachings on the Self. About.com: What Is the Self: What Buddhism Teaches About the Self. Among all the Buddha's teachings, those on the nature of the self are the hardest to understand, yet they are central to the religion. In fact, "fully perceiving the nature of the self" is one way to define enlightenment. The Five Skandhas The Buddha taught that an individual is a combination of five aggregates of existence, also called the Five Skandhas or the five heaps. Reincarnation - Buddhism and Reincarnation or Rebirth. Would you be surprised if I told you that reincarnation is not a Buddhist teaching?
If so, be surprised -- it isn't. "Reincarnation" normally is understood to be the transmigration of a soul to another body after death. There is no such teaching in Buddhism. Satipatthana Sutta. Ajahn Jagaro - Buddhism and Vegetarianism. About the Author Ajahn Jagaro was born John Cianciosi in 1948, in Italy, and migrated with his parents to Australia at the age of ten. After completing a Diploma in Applied Chemistry and working for a short time, he took leave of his home to travel in Asia. With no clear aim in mind, his travels eventually took him to a Buddhist monastery in Bangkok, where a casual interest in meditation developed into a decision to take ordination as a Buddhist monk in 1972. Mental factors (Buddhism) Cetanā. Karma and Anatta or Non-self and Kamma - Buddha's world. Nirvana. Pratītyasamutpāda. Three marks of existence. Śūnyatā. Ātman (Buddhism) Vijñāna.
Pratītyasamutpāda. Satipatthana Sutta. Skandha. Reality in Buddhism. Rebirth (Buddhism) Dharmakāya.