Self, No Self, What's a Self? Buddhist Teachings on the Self. Philosophers eastern and western have wrestled with the concept of self for many centuries.
What is the self? The Buddha taught a doctrine called anatta, which is often defined as "no-self," or the teaching that the sense of being a permanent, autonomous self is an illusion. This does not fit our ordinary experience. Am I not me? If not, who is reading this article right now? Sutta structure. Eight Consciousnesses. The eightfold network of primary consciousnesses All surviving schools of buddhist thought accept – "in common" – the existence of the first six primary consciousnesses (Sanskrit: vijñāna, Tibetan: རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: rnam-shes). The internally coherent Yogācāra school associated with Maitreya, Asaṅga, and Vasubandhu, however, uniquely – or "uncommonly" – also posits the existence of two additional primary consciousnesses, kliṣṭamanas and ālayavijñāna, in order to explain the workings of karma. The first six of these primary consciousnesses comprise the five sensory faculties together with mental consciousness, which is counted as the sixth. According to Gareth Sparham, The ālaya-vijñāna doctrine arose on the Indian subcontinent about one thousand years before Tsong kha pa.
Origins and development Vāsanā. Vāsanā (Sanskrit; Devanagari: वासना) is a behavioural tendency or karmic imprint which influences the present behaviour of a person.
It is a technical term in Dharmic Traditions, particularly Buddhist philosophy and Advaita Vedanta. Nomenclature, orthography and etymology Vāsanā (Devanagari: वासना, Tibetan: བག་ཆགས, Wylie: bag chags) and its near homonym vasana (Devanagari: वसन) are from the same Indo-European linguistic root, sharing a common theme of 'dwelling' or 'abiding'. Yogacara. Yogācāra discourse explains how our human experience is constructed by mind.
Nomenclature, orthography and etymology Vāsanā. Dharmakāya. Buddha-nature. Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms,[note 1] most notably Tathāgatagarbha and Buddhadhātu.
[note 2] Tathāgatagarbha means "the womb" or "embryo" (garbha) of the "thus-gone" (tathagata),[note 3] or "containing a tathagata", while Buddhadhātu literally means "Buddha-realm" or "Buddha-substrate". The Significance Of 'Tathagatagarbha' The well-known motto of Ch'an Buddhism is that "perceiving the true self, one becomes a Buddha.
" The "true self" signifies the Buddha nature inherent in all sentient beings. The discovering of the "true self" has become the single most important pursuit of the Buddhist, especially in Sino-Japanese Buddhism. On the contrary, early Buddhism teaches that ultimately no substantial self (i.e., 'anatman') can be found, since the self is nothing but the union of the five aggregates. Modern Buddhologists as well as the Buddhists have been intrigued by the inconsistency that one single tradition teaches both that there is no self on the one hand, and that the goal of religious life is to discover the true self, on the other hand. The big questions concerning these two contradictory doctrines include: - How did they develop during the course of Buddhist history?
It is out of the scope of this short paper to answer all these questions. The above arguments are mainly based on the Rathagotravibhaga. Kleshas (Buddhism) Saṃjñā. Saṃjñā (Sanskrit; Pali: sañña) is a Buddhist term that is typically translated as "perception" or "cognition.
" It can be defined as grasping at the distinguishing features or characteristics. Vijñāna. Vijñāna (Sanskrit; Devanagari: विज्ञान) or viññāṇa (Pāli; Devanagari: विञ्ञाण) is translated as "consciousness," "life force," "mind," or "discernment.
" Buddhism This section considers the Buddhist concept primarily in terms of Early Buddhism's Pali literature as well as in the literature of other Buddhist schools. Pali literature Throughout Pali literature, viññāṇa can be found as one of a handful of synonyms for the mental force that animates the otherwise inert material body. In a number of Pali texts though, the term has a more nuanced and context-specific (or "technical") meaning. Mindstream. Mindstream in Buddhist philosophy is the moment-to-moment continuum (Sanskrit: saṃtāna) of awareness.
There are a number of terms in the Buddhist literature that may be rendered as mindstream. For these, see below. The mindstream doctrine, like most Buddhist doctrines, is not homogeneous and shows historical development, different applications according to context and varied definitions employed by different Buddhist traditions. Saṃjñā. Mahamudra. Mahāmudrā (Sanskrit, Tibetan: Chagchen, Wylie: phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo, Wylie: phyag rgya chen po) literally means "great seal" or "great symbol.
" It "is a multivalent term of great importance in later Indian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism" which "also occurs occasionally in Hindu and East Asian Buddhist esotericism. " History and semantic field Dzogchen. According to Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, Dzogchen (Rdzogs chen or Atiyoga) is the natural, primordial state or natural condition, and a body of teachings and meditation practices aimed at realizing that condition. Dzogchen, or "Great Perfection", is a central teaching of the Nyingma school also practiced by adherents of other Tibetan Buddhist sects. According to Dzogchen literature, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path to enlightenment. From the perspective of Dzogchen, the ultimate nature of all sentient beings is said to be pure, all-encompassing, primordial clarity or naturally occurring timeless clarity. This intrinsic clarity has no form of its own and yet is capable of perceiving, experiencing, reflecting, or expressing all form.
It does so without being affected by those forms in any ultimate, permanent way. Nomenclature and etymology Maha Ati About.com: About.com: Introduction to the Buddhist Understanding of Karma. Karma is a word everyone knows, yet few in the West understand what it means. Westerners too often think it means "fate" or is some kind of cosmic justice system. This is not a Buddhist understanding of karma, however.
Karma is a Sanskrit word that means "action. " Sometimes you might see the Pali spelling, kamma, which means the same thing. In Buddhism, karma has a more specific meaning, which is volitional or willful action. Sometimes Westerners use the word karma to mean the result of karma. Teachings on the laws of karma originated in Hinduism, but Buddhists understand karma somewhat differently from Hindus. Self, No Self, What's a Self? Buddhist Teachings on the Self. About.com: What Is the Self: What Buddhism Teaches About the Self. About.com: What Is the Self: What Buddhism Teaches About the Self. Reincarnation - Buddhism and Reincarnation or Rebirth. Would you be surprised if I told you that reincarnation is not a Buddhist teaching?
If so, be surprised -- it isn't. "Reincarnation" normally is understood to be the transmigration of a soul to another body after death. There is no such teaching in Buddhism. One of the most fundamental doctrines of Buddhism is anatta, or anatman -- no soul or no self. There is no permanent essence of an individual self that survives death. Satipatthana Sutta. Ajahn Jagaro - Buddhism and Vegetarianism.
About the Author Ajahn Jagaro was born John Cianciosi in 1948, in Italy, and migrated with his parents to Australia at the age of ten. After completing a Diploma in Applied Chemistry and working for a short time, he took leave of his home to travel in Asia. With no clear aim in mind, his travels eventually took him to a Buddhist monastery in Bangkok, where a casual interest in meditation developed into a decision to take ordination as a Buddhist monk in 1972. Mental factors (Buddhism) Cetanā. Cetanā (Sanskrit, Pali; Tibetan Wylie: sems pa) is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "volition", "intention", "directionality", etc.
It can be defined as a mental factor that moves or urges the mind in a particular direction, toward a specific object or goal. Cetanā is identified within the Buddhist teachings as follows: Karma and Anatta or Non-self and Kamma - Buddha's world. Nirvana. Nirvāṇa (Sanskrit: निर्वाण; Pali: निब्बान nibbāna ; Prakrit: णिव्वाण) literally means "blown out", as in a candle. It is most commonly associated with Buddhism.
Pratītyasamutpāda. Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद; Pali: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda) is commonly translated as dependent origination or dependent arising. Three marks of existence. Śūnyatā. Śūnyatā, (Sanskrit, also shunyata; Pali: suññatā), in Buddhism, translated into English as emptiness, voidness, openness, spaciousness, vacuity, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context. Ātman (Buddhism) Whereas Buddhism generally stresses the non-Self teachings of the Buddha, some Mahāyāna Buddhist sutras and tantras present cataphatic Buddhist teachings with positive language by asserting the ultimate reality of an atman [Self], which is equated with the essential, ultimate nature of mind (Dalai Lama — see relevant section below).
This doctrine, also known as Tathāgatagarbha, is also seen as the inborn potential to become a Buddha. Vijñāna. Pratītyasamutpāda. Satipatthana Sutta. Skandha. Reality in Buddhism. Rebirth (Buddhism) Dharmakāya.