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Cerebral bypass surgery| Extracranial-intracranial bypass | EC-IC bypass | STA-MCA bypass. Overview Cerebral bypass surgery is performed to restore, or "revascularize," blood flow to the brain. A cerebral bypass is the brain's equivalent of a coronary bypass in the heart. The surgery connects a blood vessel from outside the brain to a vessel inside the brain to reroute blood flow around a damaged or blocked artery. The goal of bypass surgery is to restore blood supply to the brain and prevent strokes. What is cerebral bypass surgery?

Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to the brain through four main arteries: the right and left carotid arteries and the right and left vertebral arteries. The first type uses a vessel graft – a length of artery or vein harvested from somewhere else in the body. The other type does not use a vessel graft but a healthy donor artery that flows in the scalp or face. The most common type of bypass is the STA-MCA (superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery) bypass. Who is a candidate? You may be a candidate for a cerebral bypass if you have: Heterotopic heart transplantation: experimental development and clinical experience | European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery | Oxford Academic. Skip to Main Content Sign In Register Advanced Search Journals Career Network Online ISSN 1873-734X Print ISSN 1010-7940 Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Connect Resources Explore Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

Craniotomy (brain surgery) | Treatments & Procedures | Spire Healthcare. Double-barrel bypass for cerebral ischemia: technique, rationale, and preliminary experience with 10 consecutive cases. St. Jude Medical Nanostim Leadless Pacemaker Receives CE Mark. 8inShare St. Jude Medical has announced its acquisition of Nanostim and CE Mark approval of the Nanostim leadless pacemaker. The Nanostim is the world’s first leadless pacemaker to enter the market and is less than 10 percent the size of a conventional pacemaker. The device is inserted through the femoral vein with the help of a steerable catheter and implanted directly into the right ventricle of the heart, as shown in the video below. Traditional pacemakers need a surgically created subcutaneous pocket for the pacemaker and leads running from the device to the heart. Results of a feasibility study in 33 patients (the LEADLESS study) were released earlier this year. Despite its small size, the device battery is expected to have an average lifespan of more than 9 years at 100 percent pacing, or more than 13 years at 50 percent pacing.

Flashback: EBR Systems and Cambridge Consultants Develop Leadless Pacemaker Press release: St. Product page: Nanostim Leadless Pacemaker… Brachytherapy - Information and support. Internal radiotherapy (brachytherapy) is often given after external radiotherapy. Tubes are placed into your vagina through your cervix and into your womb. A radioactive capsule is placed in the tubes. If you’ve not had a hysterectomy, you’ll have intrauterine brachytherapy.

Your doctor will place tubes into your vagina, through your cervix and into your womb while you’re sedated or under a general anaesthetic. If you’ve had a hysterectomy you’ll have intravaginal brachytherapy. A tube will be placed in your vagina. You will not need an anaesthetic. The tubes will be connected to a machine that delivers a radioactive capsule into them. The most common way to give brachytherapy to the cervix is as a high-dose treatment. Image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) uses MRI or CT scans to make radiotherapy very accurate. Epidural anaesthesia. An epidural is an injection in the back to stop you feeling pain in part of your body. This page covers epidural anaesthesia, a type of epidural commonly given for pain relief in childbirth and in some types of surgery. When epidurals are used Preparing for an epidural How an epidural is given Recovering from an epidural Risks and side effects When epidurals are used Epidurals can be used: during childbirth, including caesareans during some types of surgery after some types of surgery Steroid medication can also be given as an epidural injection to treat back or leg pain caused by sciatica or a slipped (prolapsed) disc.

Preparing for an epidural If you have any concerns or questions about having an epidural, discuss these with your doctor. You may be given specific advice about eating, drinking and medication before the epidural. As you won't be able to drive for 24 hours after having an epidural, you'll need to arrange for someone to give you a lift home. How an epidural is given. Airways and Intubation. Oral intubation information. Patient. Endotracheal intubation is the placement of a tube into the trachea to maintain a patent airway in those who are unconscious or unable to maintain their airway for other reasons. Compared to the use of pharyngeal airways (oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal), benefits of an endotracheal airway include: Protection against aspiration and gastric insufflationMore effective ventilation and oxygenationFacilitation of suctioningDelivery of anaesthetic and other drugs via the endotracheal tube (ETT) Intubation is a technique that requires training, experience and regular updating to maintain competence.

Anyone attempting it should also be capable of managing any complications that arise. Alternatives to intubation Laryngeal mask airway (LMA)This is widely used in the UK in more than 50% of surgical patients. Oesophageal tracheal Combitube® (ETC)The ETC is a double lumen tube combining an oesophageal tube with closed distal end linked by a short connection to a conventional tracheal tube. Preparation. Kidney. Codeine Uses, Dosage, Side Effects & Warnings - Generic Name: codeine (KOE deen)Brand Names: What is codeine? Codeine is an opioid pain medication.

An opioid is sometimes called a narcotic. Codeine is used to treat mild to moderately severe pain. Codeine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Important information You should not use codeine if you are allergic to it, or if you have an uncontrolled breathing disorder, a bowel obstruction called paralytic ileus, or frequent asthma attacks or hyperventilation. Codeine can slow or stop your breathing. MISUSE OF NARCOTIC MEDICINE CAN CAUSE ADDICTION, OVERDOSE, OR DEATH, especially in a child or other person using the medicine without a prescription.

Medicines that contain codeine should not be given to a child just after surgery to remove the tonsils or adenoids. Get emergency medical help if a child taking this medication has breathing problems, blue lips, or severe drowsiness, or if you cannot wake the child up from sleep. Before taking this medicine. Penicillin. Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (oral use), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

Penicillin antibiotics were among the first medications to be effective against many bacterial infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use. About 10% of people report that they are allergic to penicillin; however, up to 90% of this group may not actually be allergic.[2] Serious allergies only occur in about 0.03%.[2] All penicillins are β-lactam antibiotics. Medical uses[edit] The term "penicillin" is often used generically to refer to benzylpenicillin (penicillin G, the original penicillin found in 1928), procaine benzylpenicillin (procaine penicillin), benzathine benzylpenicillin (benzathine penicillin), and phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V).

Susceptibility[edit] Hydrochlorothiazide. Hydrochlorothiazide (abbreviated HCTZ, HCT, or HZT), is a diuretic medication often used to treat high blood pressure and swelling due to fluid build up.[2] Other uses include diabetes insipidus, renal tubular acidosis, and to decrease the risk of kidney stones in those with high calcium level in the urine.[2] For high blood pressure it is often recommended as a first line treatment.[2][3] HCTZ is taken by mouth and may be combined with other blood pressure medications as a single pill to increase the effectiveness.[2] Potential side effects include poor kidney function, electrolyte imbalances especially low blood potassium and less commonly low blood sodium, gout, high blood sugar, and feeling faint initially upon standing up.[2] While allergies to HCTZ are reported to occur more often in those with allergies to sulfa drugs this association is not well supported.[2] It may be used during pregnancy but is not a first line medication in this group.[2] Medical uses[edit] Trade names[edit]

Metformin. Medication Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,[6][7] particularly in people who are overweight.[8] It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.[6] It is not associated with weight gain.[9] It is taken by mouth.[6] Metformin was discovered in 1922.[15] French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s.[15] It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995.[6][16] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[17] Metformin is the most widely used medication for diabetes taken by mouth.[15] It is available as a generic medication.[6] In 2017, it was the fourth-most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 78 million prescriptions.[18][19] Medical uses[edit] Type 2 diabetes[edit] Efficacy[edit] Polycystic ovarian syndrome[edit] Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy[edit] Weight change[edit]

Amoxicillin. Amoxicillin (amox), also spelled amoxycillin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[1] It is the first line treatment for middle ear infections. It may also be used for strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, and urinary tract infections among others. It is taken by mouth.[1] Common side effects include nausea and rash.[1] It may also increase the risk of yeast infections and, when used in combination with clavulanic acid, diarrhea.[2] It should not be used in those who are allergic to penicillin.

While usable in those with kidney problems, the dose may need to be decreased. Its use in pregnancy and breastfeeding does not appear to be harmful.[1] Medical uses[edit] Amoxicillin is used in the treatment of a number of infections, including acute otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, urinary tract infections, Salmonella infections, Lyme disease, and chlamydia infections.[1] Respiratory infections[edit] Interaction[edit] Azithromycin. Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[2] This includes middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, traveler's diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections. It may also be used for a number of sexually transmitted infections including chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Along with other medications, it may also be used for malaria. It can be taken by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day.[2] Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and upset stomach.

An allergic reaction or a type of diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is possible. Medical uses[edit] Azithromycin is used to treat many different infections, including: Prevention and treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae. Bacterial susceptibility[edit] Azithromycin has relatively broad but shallow antibacterial activity.

Anaerobic microorganisms. Omeprazole. Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.[1] It is also used to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people who are at high risk.[1] It can be taken by mouth or injected into a vein.[1][4] Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, headaches, and increased intestinal gas. Serious side effects may include Clostridium difficile colitis, an increased risk of pneumonia, an increased risk of bone fractures, and the potential of masking stomach cancer. It is unclear if it is safe for use in pregnancy.

Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor and as such blocks the release of stomach acid.[1] Medical uses[edit] Omeprazole can be used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, erosive esophagitis, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.[1] Peptic ulcers[edit] Peptic ulcers may be treated with omeprazole. St. U.S. Amlodipine. Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.[1] While calcium channel blockers are not typically recommended in heart failure, amlodipine may be used if other medications are not sufficient for high blood pressure or heart related chest pain.[2] Amlodipine is taken by mouth and has an effect for at least a day.[1] Amlodipine was first patented in 1986 with commercial sale beginning in 1990.[3] It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4] It is available as a generic medication.[1] Wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.003 to 0.040 USD per day for a typical dose as of 2014.[5] In the United States a months supply costs less than 25 USD.[6] Medical uses[edit] Contraindications[edit] Absolute[edit] Allergy to amlodipine[9] Relative[edit] Adverse effects[edit] Adverse side effects of the use of amlodipine may include:[9][10]

Levothyroxine. Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).[3][4] It is used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency including the severe form known as myxedema coma.[3] It may also be used to treat and prevent certain types of thyroid tumors.[3] It is not indicated for weight loss.[3] Levothyroxine is taken by mouth or given by injection into a vein.[3] Maximum effect from a specific dose can take up to six weeks to occur.[3] Side effects from excessive doses include weight loss, trouble tolerating heat, sweating, anxiety, trouble sleeping, tremor, and fast heart rate.[3] Use is not recommended in people who have had a recent heart attack.[3] Use during pregnancy has been found to be safe.[3] It is recommended that dosing be based on regular measurements of TSH and T4 levels in the blood.[3] Much of the effect of levothyroxine is following its conversion to triiodothyronine (T3).[3] Medical use[edit] Generic levothyroxine, 25 µg oral tablet.

Lisinopril. Statins. Simvastatin. Hydrocodone. What are opioids? | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Corticosteroids. Treatment of Vascular Malformations. 10 Cutting Edge Medical Devices Recognized For Excellence In Design. Linear Accelerator (LINAC) Nebulisers in General Practice. About nebuliser devices. Antibiotic awareness - The NHS in England. Sulfonamide (medicine) Scoliosis - Treatment for adults. This Guy Just Raised The Cost Of An HIV Drug By 5000% What is cyclophosphamide? CyclophosphamideActivation. 3D-Printed Hearts Help Surgeons Save Babies' Lives. ‘Ambulance Drone’ Could Drastically Increase Heart Attack Survival. Investigating Dimebon, a promising new drug for Alzheimer’s disease.

Scientists Grow New Blood Vessels In Just 7 Days. Man With Severed Spinal Cord Walks Again After Cell Transplant. Complete cardiac transplant. Endotracheal intubation: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.