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Nature, Nurture, & Development

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Sex cells evolved to pass on quality mitochondria. One of a series of ova made in a spell of reproductive mitochondrial interest.

Sex cells evolved to pass on quality mitochondria

The ovum about to ovulate has differentiated from the rest of the surrounding tissue and is getting ready to leave the ovary. Its mitochondria are organized mainly around the nucleus. Lamprey helps scientists discover how the human brain appeared. Credit: Snezhana Mazhekenova Researchers at the M.M.

Lamprey helps scientists discover how the human brain appeared

Shemyakin and Yu.A. Without ancestral gene life on Earth might not have evolved beyond slime. Researchers at the University of British Columbia have identified a common ancestral gene that enabled the evolution of advanced life over a billion years ago.

Without ancestral gene life on Earth might not have evolved beyond slime

The gene, found in all complex organisms, including plants and animals, encodes for a large group of enzymes known as protein kinases that enabled cells to be larger and to rapidly transfer information from one part to another. "If the duplications and subsequent mutations of this gene during evolution didn't happen, then life would be completely different today," said Steven Pelech, a professor in Division of Neurology in the UBC Faculty of Medicine. "The most advanced life on our planet would probably still be bacterial slime. " Plants, animals, mushrooms and more all exist because they are made up of eukaryotic cells that are larger and far more complex than bacteria.

Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions. Neurodevelopment: Unlocking the brain. Growing up in the suburbs of New York City, Takao Hensch learned German from his father, Japanese from his mother and English from the community around him.

Neurodevelopment: Unlocking the brain

“I was always wondering,” he says, “what is it that makes it so easy to learn languages when you're young, and so hard once you begin to get older?” Today, as a neuroscientist at Boston Children's Hospital in Massachusetts, Hensch is at the forefront of efforts to answer that question in full molecular detail. Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences - Bouchard - 2002 - Journal of Neurobiology.

Brain Development

Genetics. Gene hunters find rare inherited mutations linked to bipolar disorder. Using so-called next-generation genome sequencing, researchers at Johns Hopkins have identified 84 potential inherited gene mutations that may contribute to the most severe forms of bipolar disorder.

Gene hunters find rare inherited mutations linked to bipolar disorder

About 5.6 million Americans are estimated to have bipolar disorder. The investigators say their study is one of the first of rare genetic variations in people with bipolar disorder, which, in contrast to most previous studies of common variation, can provide a more direct insight into the biology underlying the susceptibility to bipolar disorder. Scientists link bipolar disorder to unexpected brain region. While bipolar disorder is one of the most-studied neurological disorders--the Greeks noticed symptoms of the disease as early as the first century--it's possible that scientists have overlooked an important part of the brain for its source.

Scientists link bipolar disorder to unexpected brain region

Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have shown for the first time that ensembles of genes within the striatum--a part of the brain that coordinates many primary aspects of our behavior, such as motor and action planning, motivation and reward perception--could be deeply involved in the disorder. Most modern studies of bipolar disorder have concentrated on the brain's cortex, the largest part of the brain in humans, associated with higher-level thought and action. "This is the first real study of gene expression in the striatum for bipolar disorder," said Ron Davis, chair of the Department of Neuroscience at TSRI, who directed the study. "We now have a snapshot of the genes and proteins expressed in that region. " Developmental trajectories during adolescence in males and femal. Developmental trajectories during adolescence in males and females: a cross-species understanding of underlying brain changes.

Girl With Half Her Brain Becomes Speech Pathologist as Adult (Video) An 8-year-old girl who had the right side of her brain removed in a life-saving surgery has grown up to earn a Master’s degree and become a speech pathologist.

Girl With Half Her Brain Becomes Speech Pathologist as Adult (Video)

Christina Santhouse was suffering from Rasmussen’s encephalitis — an extremely rare autoimmune disorder that caused 150 seizures every day. With the condition worsening, doctors agreed the only way to save her life was to remove the right half of her brain. FIND MORE INSPIRING STORIES WITH OUR GOOD NEWS APP—> Download FREE for Android and iOS As she was wheeled into the operating room, Christina was upbeat and excited about getting her life back after having experiencing so many seizures. Test predicts which children will grow up to be drain on society - when they are just three years old  The 4 Traits That Put Kids at Risk for Addiction. Photo Drug education is the only part of the middle school curriculum I remember — perhaps because it backfired so spectacularly.

The 4 Traits That Put Kids at Risk for Addiction

Before reaching today’s legal drinking age, I was shooting cocaine and heroin. I’ve since recovered from my addiction, and researchers now are trying to develop innovative prevention programs to help children at risk take a different road than I did. Developing a public antidrug program that really works has not been easy.