2 Psychologists in C.I.A. Interrogations Can Face Trial, Judge Rules - The New York Times. The sad truth about APA’s ethical lapse is finally out. July 17 Regarding the July 11 news article “Report: APA leaders softened ethics for harsh interrogations”: The American Psychological Association’s response to an independent investigation attempted to strike a tone of shock and dismay, but there was little in the report that has not been communicated repeatedly to APA leadership by concerned APA members (and members who resigned in protest). The APA’s claim that the “report contains deeply disturbing findings that reveal previously unknown and troubling instances of collusion” flies in the face of years of member protests that were met by the APA with denials, obfuscation and attacks on critics. In 2006, psychologists who raised concerns about possible abuses at Guantanamo Bay were called “opportunistic commentators masquerading as scholars.”
I resigned from the APA in 2007, and some colleagues ask if I’m happy the truth is finally out. Irene Smith Landsman, Garrett Park, Md. Report criticizes how psychology association worked with the Pentagon, post-9/11. The American Psychological Association on Friday released an independent review of its findings that the association abandoned many of its ethical principles when it advised the Bush administration on interrogation techniques in the wake of Sept. 11. The report (discussed in detail in this article in The New York Times) found that the association seemed to want to please the Pentagon rather than stick up for ethical standards, and that the activities of key leaders of the association buttressed the argument for using interrogation techniques many consider to be torture.
In some cases, administration officials were nervous about some techniques but moved ahead after assurances from APA leaders. APA leaders, in a statement on Friday, apologized for their actions and pledged reforms so that psychologists in the future would not participate in the kinds of interrogations discussed in the report. Psychologists, however, have taken a different approach. Lessons must be learned after psychology torture inquiry. In 1917, when the field of psychology was young and struggling to gain acceptance in science, the American Psychological Association (APA) needed a friend.
Like many at the time, it decided to assist the war effort by working with the US military. The collaboration was largely benign: efforts to assess which recruits were fit to be soldiers led to the first formal study of variation in human intelligence. Later, psychologists studied the effects of war on soldiers returning home, fuelling the case for making the First World War “the war to end all wars”. That was not to be, but psychology, and the APA in particular, continued its close bond with military and intelligence agencies. Nevertheless, the tone of the alliance between US agencies and psychologists has darkened over the past century.
Given this history, it should be no surprise that the APA has continued to cultivate a close relationship with the agencies. Coalition for an Ethical Psychology. Lessons must be learned after psychology torture inquiry. APA Fails to Sanction Psychologist in GTMO Torture Case. Timeline of American Psychological Association Policies and Actions Related to Detainee Welfare and Professional Ethics in the Context of Interrogation and National Security.
Independent Review Cites Collusion Among APA Individuals and Defense Department Officials in Policy on Interrogation Techniques. APA Apologizes for “Deeply Disturbing” Findings and Organizational Failures; Announces Initial Policy and Procedural Actions to Correct Shortcomings WASHINGTON — The American Psychological Association (APA) today announced an initial series of policy and procedural steps in response to findings of individual collusion and organizational failures in the group’s activities related to the Bush Administration’s war on terror. The actions come as the APA released a 542-page report produced by attorney David Hoffman, of the Sidley Austin law firm, detailing the relationship between various activities of the APA and Bush Administration policies on interrogation techniques.
Mr. Hoffman was retained by the APA Board of Directors last November to conduct a thorough and independent review, and the APA cooperated fully during the eight-month process. “The Hoffman report contains deeply disturbing findings that reveal previously unknown and troubling instances of collusion,” said Dr. Mr. Coalition for an Ethical Psychology. Coalition for an Ethical Psychology. Report of the Independent Reviewer and Related Materials. The APA Board of Directors engaged attorney David Hoffman of the law firm Sidley Austin in November 2014 to conduct an independent review of whether there was any factual support for the assertion that APA engaged in activity that would constitute collusion with the Bush administration to promote, support or facilitate the use of "enhanced" interrogation techniques by the United States in the war on terror.
Following is a link to the complete, unedited independent review. Press Release and Recommended Actions Independent Review Report & Supplemental Materials Report of the independent reviewer (PDF, 2.62MB) Index of Exhibits to the APA Independent Review Report (PDF, 171KB) Binder 1 (PDF, 104MB) Binder 2 (PDF, 164MB) Binder 3 (PDF, 93MB) Binder 4 (PDF, 212MB) Binder 5 (PDF, 85MB) Binder 6 (PDF, 70MB) The following comment section is provided to allow for an online conversation regarding the Final Independent Report and we ask that you provide helpful suggestions. Independent Review Cites Collusion Among APA Individuals and Defense Department Officials in Policy on Interrogation Techniques.
APA overhauling policies and leadership after torture report. After years of denying that it had given scientific and ethical legitimacy to torture by the U.S. government, the American Psychological Association (APA) last week accepted the finding of an external investigation that concluded it had done just that. Now, with a public apology and sudden wave of high-level resignations or retirements, APA is struggling to craft an institutional response that will satisfy its members and long-time detractors, even as some of those pilloried in the probe defend themselves and their colleagues. “This is a crisis,” says Nadine Kaslow, a psychologist at Emory University in Atlanta and a former APA president, who helped launch the investigation. “I regret that the organization didn’t listen to the critics earlier.”
The 542-page report from a former Chicago inspector general, David Hoffman, pulls no punches, concluding that APA officials colluded with the U.S. government to enable the torture of detainees. That sentiment may not save Koocher from sanctions. Ethics & American Psychological Association. Kenneth S. Pope Valerie A. Vetter ABSTRACT: A random sample of 1,319 members of the American Psychological Association (APA) were asked to describe incidents that they found ethically challenging or troubling. Responses from 679 psychologists described 703 incidents in 23 categories. This process of gathering critical incidents from the general membership, pioneered by those who developed APA's original code of ethics, may be useful in considering possible revisions of the code and preserving APA's unique approach to identifying ethical principles that address realistically the emerging dilemmas that the diverse membership confronts in the day-to-day work of psychology.
View citation and copyright. Founded in 1892, the American Psychological Association (APA) faced ethical problems without a formal code of ethics for 60 years. In the early years of the American Psychological Association, the problems of ethics were relatively simple. Confidentiality Forensic Psychology Research Sexual Issues. The History of Psychology. Functionalism Functionalism, an early school of psychology, focuses on the acts and functions of the mind rather than its internal contents. Its most prominent American advocates are William James and John Dewey, whose 1896 article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" promotes functionalism. Psychoanalysis The founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, introduces the term in a scholarly paper. Freud's psychoanalytic approach asserts that people are motivated by powerful, unconscious drives and conflicts. He develops an influential therapy based on this assertion, using free association and dream analysis.
Structuralism Edward B. Titchener, a leading proponent of structuralism, publishes his Outline of Psychology. Structuralism is the view that all mental experience can be understood as a combination of simple elements or events. American Psychological Association Bolstered C.I.A. Torture Program, Report Says. WASHINGTON — The American Psychological Association secretly collaborated with the administration of President to bolster a legal and ethical justification for the torture of prisoners swept up in the post-Sept. 11 war on terror, according to a new report by a group of dissident health professionals and human rights activists. The report is the first to examine the association’s role in the interrogation program. It contends, using newly disclosed emails, that the group’s actions to keep psychologists involved in the interrogation program coincided closely with efforts by senior Bush administration officials to salvage the program after the public disclosure in 2004 of graphic photos of prisoner abuse by American military personnel at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.