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Plato ( pron.: / ˈ p l eɪ t oʊ / ; Greek : Πλάτων , Plátōn , "broad"; [ 2 ] 424/423 BC [a] – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece . He was also a mathematician , student of Socrates , writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens , the first institution of higher learning in the Western world . Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle , Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science . [ 3 ] In the words of A.
The Allegory of the Cave —also known as the Analogy of the Cave , Plato's Cave , or the Parable of the Cave —is an allegory presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic to illustrate "our nature in its education and want of education " (514a). It is written as a dialogue between Plato's brother Glaucon and Plato's mentor Socrates , narrated by the latter at the beginning of Book VII (514a–520a). The Allegory of the Cave is presented after the metaphor of the sun (508b–509c) and the analogy of the divided line (509d–513e). All three are characterized in relation to dialectic at the end of Book VII and VIII (531d–534e). Plato has Socrates describe a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them, and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows.
Socrates ( pron.: / ˈ s ɒ k r ə t iː z / ; Greek : Σωκράτης , Ancient Greek pronunciation: [sɔːkrátɛːs] , Sōkrátēs ; c. 469 BC – 399 BC) [ 1 ] was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher . Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy , he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon , and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes . Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity. [ 2 ] Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics , and it is this Platonic Socrates who also lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method , or elenchus .