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This article is about the American psychologist and philosopher. For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who had trained as a physician . He was the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. [ 2 ] James wrote influential books on pragmatism , psychology , educational psychology , the psychology of religious experience, and mysticism .
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin SJ ( French: [pjɛʁ tejaʁ də ʃaʁdɛ̃] ; May 1, 1881 – April 10, 1955) was a French philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of Peking Man and Piltdown Man . [ 1 ] Teilhard conceived the idea of the Omega Point (a maximum level of complexity and consciousness towards which he believed the universe was evolving) and developed Vladimir Vernadsky 's concept of Noosphere . Some of his ideas came into conflict with the Magisterium of the Catholic Church , particularly regarding the doctrine of Original Sin and his views concerning the origin of man . He was severely reprimanded and his works were condemned by the Holy Office . Teilhard's primary book, The Phenomenon of Man , set forth a sweeping account of the unfolding of the cosmos . He abandoned traditional interpretations of creation in the Book of Genesis in favor of a less strict interpretation.
The history of Iran has been intertwined with the history of a larger historical region, comprising the area from the Danube River in the west to the Indus River and Jaxartes in the east and from the Caucasus , Caspian Sea , and Aral Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman and Egypt in the south. The southwestern part of the Iranian plateau participated in the wider Ancient Near East with Elam , from the Early Bronze Age . The Persian Empire proper begins in the Iron Age, following the influx of Iranian peoples . Iranian people gave rise to the Median , as the Persian people gave rise to the Achaemenid , the Parthians , and the Sassanid dynasties during the classical antiquity .
The Shia ( Arabic : شيعة , Shīʿah ) represent the largest schismatic sect in Islam , accounting for 10-20% of the world's normative body of Muslims. [ 1 ] Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shi'ites or Shias . "Shia" is the short form of the historic phrase Shīʻatul ʻAlī ( شيعة العلي ), meaning "followers", "faction", or "party" of Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali , whom the Shia believe to be Muhammad's successor in the Caliphate. Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of the Islamic prophet Muhammad attested in Shia hadith, and certain books deemed sacred to Shia ( Nahj al-Balagha ). [ 2 ] [ 3 ] In contrast to other types, the Shia believe that only God has the right to choose a representative to safeguard Islam, the Quran and sharia . Thus the Shias look to Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, whom they revere and consider divinely appointed, as the rightful successor to Muhammad, and the first imam .
Sunni Islam ( pron.: / ˈ s uː n i / or / ˈ s ʊ n i / ) is the largest branch of Islam ; its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhlu-s-Sunnati wa-l-Jamāʿah ( Arabic : أهل السنة والجماعة ), "people of the tradition of Muhammad and the consensus of the Ummah " or ʾAhlu-s-Sunnah ( Arabic : أهل السنة ). For short, in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims , Sunnis , Sunnites or simply Muslims . Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as the orthodox version of the religion. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The word "Sunni" comes from the term Sunnah ( Arabic : سنة ), which refers to the sayings and actions of the prophet Muhammad as recorded in Hadiths . [ 3 ]