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How NIC works
This FAQ answers the most commonly-asked questions about Winsock . The bulk of it was written back when mailing lists and news groups were the best ways to find people who knew Winsock deeply, and so drew heavily from those resources. Today, there are better places to ask questions. This FAQ also contains a repository of Winsock programming information and links useful for all levels of programmers. Please email me if you have any corrections or additions for the list.
This is an attempt to address some TCP/IP frequently asked questions and present best practices. While the WinSock Programmer's FAQ will remain the ultimate FAQ for native code, there is a growing need for a simplified version that addresses the managed interface to TCP/IP sockets. Section 1 - Application Protocol Design 1.1 - Message framing , also known as: "One side sent X bytes, but the other side only got Y bytes." "One side sent several packets, but the other side only got one packet, which was all the sent packets appended together."
When a UDP datagram is larger than the MTU size of physical media and there is no ARP entry for the host it is sent to, Microsoft Windows TCP/IP implementation keeps only the last fragment of the UDP datagram sent to a given destination while waiting for an ARP reply. The rest of fragments are silently discarded. For example, when a WinSock application attempts to send a single UDP datagram with 12501 bytes of data, the IP layer performs fragmentation and generates nine IP fragments on an Ethernet.
Using Internet Sockets
Bitrate and Bandwidth
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model (ISO/IEC 7498-1) is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization .
Ethernet, Ethernet Card,Ethernet and the OSI Model,TCP/IP and the OSI Model,Ethernet Network Topology,Cabling and Cable Lengths, A Chronology of Ethernet.Ethernet is the most common network, supported by many protocols and its low cost.
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs.