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Tectonic hazards

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Types of volcanic eruptions. During a volcanic eruption, lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and blocks), and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. Several types of volcanic eruptions have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different meta types of eruptions. Nepal earthquake: Rescue effort intensifies - BBC News. Rescue efforts in Nepal are intensifying after nearly 2,000 people were killed in the country's worst earthquake in more than 80 years.

Nepal earthquake: Rescue effort intensifies - BBC News

Many countries and international charities have offered aid to Nepal to deal with the disaster. Seventeen people have been killed on Mount Everest by avalanches - the mountain's worst-ever disaster. The death toll could rise, as the situation is unclear in remote areas which remain cut off or hard to access. Nepal earthquake: fears grow for remote villages as at least 4,000 confirmed dead. At least 4,000 people have been killed and more than 100,000 left homeless by the earthquake in Nepal, officials have said, as the search intensified for those in remote villages that are out of the reach of rescue teams.

Nepal earthquake: fears grow for remote villages as at least 4,000 confirmed dead

However, reports from the remote Nepalese district of Ghorka, close to the epicentre of Saturday’s quake, suggest the number of casualties could be fewer than has been feared – even if a high proportion of buildings were badly damaged. Officials said on Monday the total number of dead and wounded in Ghorka was still unclear but, having had contact with most of their outlying administrators, they thought it would be “in the hundreds, not the thousands”. By late-afternoon, the overall confirmed total across the country was 3,922 dead and nearly 7,180 injured, with a further 85 dead in India. An avalanche triggered by the quake killed 18 people at Mount Everest’s base camp, while 85 people were killed in India and China. Footage emerges of Everest base camp avalanche. Nepal earthquake: Doctors forced to operate in tents with hospitals overwhelmed as death toll rises – and aftershocks keep coming - Asia - World - The Independent.

The worst earthquake to hit Nepal in 80 years has killed more than 3,200 people, injured more than 6,500 and reduced several World Heritage sites to rubble.

Nepal earthquake: Doctors forced to operate in tents with hospitals overwhelmed as death toll rises – and aftershocks keep coming - Asia - World - The Independent

Some of the city’s buildings were smashed to pieces, others tilted at crazy angles. Partial collapses exposed living rooms, furniture and belongings stacked on shelves. People wandered the streets clutching bedrolls and blankets. Others sat in the street cradling their children, surrounded by plastic bags of belongings. Rescuers, some wearing face masks against the dust, scrambled over mounds of splintered timber and broken bricks looking for survivors. Chile's Calbuco volcano erupts again. Chile’s Calbuco volcano erupted again on Thursday, sending dark bursts of ash and hot rock billowing 2.5 miles (4km) into the air and prompting officials to order a new evacuation of nearby residents.

Chile's Calbuco volcano erupts again

Horror in Nepal's 'worst-hit' village - BBC News. My cameraman Sanjay Ganguly and I were the first journalists to visit what is reckoned to be the worst hit village in all Nepal.

Horror in Nepal's 'worst-hit' village - BBC News

We'd travelled on a reconnaissance mission with two British Gurkhas. You can watch our report here but be warned, it is very upsetting. Until last week Langtang village was one of the most popular trekking destinations in Nepal. It was home to 435 people and 55 hotels and guest houses. Now just one house remains. The earthquake triggered a catastrophic avalanche and landslide that submerged the village under a great plume of ice and rock. Himalayan 'drop after Nepal quake' - BBC News. The height of a swathe of the Himalayas has dropped by around one metre as a result of the devastating Nepal earthquake, scientists say.

Himalayan 'drop after Nepal quake' - BBC News

But they add that the drop will roughly be balanced by slow uplift due to tectonic activity. And they have yet to analyse satellite images of the region in which the most famous Himalayan peak - Everest - is located. However, there continues to be debate over exactly how tall Everest is. Nepal earthquake: 'Million children left out of school' - BBC News. Nearly a million children in Nepal will not be able to return to school in the wake of last month's earthquake unless urgent action is taken, says Unicef.

Nepal earthquake: 'Million children left out of school' - BBC News

The international charity says nine out of 10 schools have been destroyed in the worst-affected districts. Almost 24,000 classrooms were damaged or destroyed in the disaster that hit the country 12 days ago, it adds. Unicef is attempting to set up temporary learning spaces for children. Currently, all schools are closed in Nepal, although many of those still standing are being used as emergency shelters. Why was the earthquake in Nepal such a devastating event?

Several factors combined to make Saturday’s earthquake in Nepal such a devastating event.

Why was the earthquake in Nepal such a devastating event?

The first was its basic magnitude. At 7.8 on the Richter scale, this was one of the most powerful earthquakes to strike the region in the past 80 years. In addition, it was a shallow event with a source that was only 11km below ground. Why Nepal is so vulnerable to quakes - BBC News. The pictures emerging from the Nepalese capital, Kathmandu, are shocking.

Why Nepal is so vulnerable to quakes - BBC News

Durbar square, a Unesco World Heritage Site, has been reduced to rubble. The famous Dharahara Tower has been toppled to leave just a stump. Nepal earthquake: Rescuers forced to dig with their bare hands in search for survivors as images show damage to historic buildings - Asia - World - The Independent. Along with the huge loss of human life, critical infrastructure, homes and buildings have been destroyed by the magnitude-7.8 earthquake which struck before noon on Saturday, 50 miles outside the capital, Kathmandu.

Nepal earthquake: Rescuers forced to dig with their bare hands in search for survivors as images show damage to historic buildings - Asia - World - The Independent

People were trapped under rubble after the powerful earthquake struck (Getty) Rescuers were forced to dig with their bare hands to reach survivors (Getty) Planes from neighbouring countries are now landing laden with aid, relief workers and doctors to help the impoverished country deal with the disaster. Nepal was made vulnerable by more than its violent geology. Kathmandu was ever a disaster-in-waiting. The densely populated capital of one of the world’s poorest countries clings to the slopes of the seismically unstable Himalayas.

The city was nearly levelled and 8,500 killed in its last great earthquake 81 years before. It had history. On Saturday the long-feared calamity struck. I first arrived in Kathmandu in 2007 to begin a new job with Oxfam. Nepal earthquake death toll expected to rise sharply. In the former royal city of Bhaktapur, dozens of traditional temples have been reduced to dirt and palaces have lost entire wings. Damage to the famous Unesco-listed durbar squares of the city has been extensive; the Dharahara tower, one of Nepal’s most famous landmarks, was reduced to rubble, killing up to 180 people and leaving up to 200 people trapped inside. Masonry lay scatted across the stone paving. An ornate dragon’s head lay next to a chipped effigy of a god. Nepal earthquake: Eight million people affected, UN says - BBC News.

Eight million people have been affected by the massive earthquake in Nepal - more than a quarter of the country's population - the United Nations says. International aid has started arriving but there is still huge need - 1.4 million require food aid, the UN said. The 7.8-magnitude quake hit Nepal on Saturday destroying buildings in Kathmandu and severely affecting rural areas across the region. The death toll has risen to 4,310, with almost 8,000 injured, officials say. Nepal and surrounding areas have continued to experience aftershocks. Thousands in Kathmandu, Nepal's capital, spent a third night outside, too afraid to go back into their houses. Water, food and electricity are in short supply and there are fears of outbreaks of disease. Nepal earthquake death toll exceeds 6,000 with thousands unaccounted for. 'I thought it was a dream': Nepal quake survivor recalls moment disaster struck. Nepal quake: 'No chance' to find more survivors, as death toll rises - BBC News.

Nepal earthquake: a disaster that shows quakes don't kill people, buildings d... Nepal quake: Why are some tremors so deadly? - BBC News. On 1 April, 2014, a Magnitude 8.2 earthquake rocked northern Chile. Explicit cookie consent. The economic impact of Nepal's earthquake. YouTube. This Interactive Map Shows Nepal Before and After the Earthquake. With two earthquakes in three weeks and a monsoon fast-approaching, Nepal is on a knife-edge - Comment - Voices - The Independent.

Temporary shelters have sprung up across public parks and open spaces. Everyone is too scared to go back home or to their hotels. Even hospital patients are sheltering outside in the open air. Iceland, Eyjafjallajökull - May 1st and 2nd, 2010. Nepal’s opportunity to seize the moment for the future of its people. Top 10 active volcanoes to see up close.

Mount Aso, Kyushu, Japan There is some concern that Mount Fuji is showing signs of eruption in the near future, but as things stand, Japan’s most-active volcano is Mount Aso, in Aso Kujū national park on the southern island of Kyushu. Earthquake measuring 8.5 magnitude shakes most of Japan. A powerful 8.5 magnitude earthquake struck near remote Japanese islands and shook most of the country on Saturday evening local time, although it occurred well beneath the earth’s surface and did not trigger a tsunami warning.

Several people suffered non-life-threatening injuries, and there were no reports of deaths or major damage. The quake struck off the Ogasawara islands at a depth of 370 miles (590 km), the Japan Meteorological Agency said. Mount Sinabung in Indonesia unleashes hot ash a mile into the air. Hot ash from Mount Sinabung eruption forced at least 2,700 people living in villages four miles away to evacuateAuthorities have been monitoring the volcano closely for weeks after suspecting it was going to explode violentlyHad been dormant for over 400 years before erupting in 2010 when it killed two and made at least 30,000 homelessSinabung one of 130 active volcanoes on Indonesia's deadly 'Ring of Fire' which are prone to erupt unpredictably By Jay Akbar For Mailonline Published: 17:50 GMT, 13 June 2015 | Updated: 15:36 GMT, 14 June 2015 A volcanic eruption in western Indonesia has unleashed hot ash over a mile into the air and threatens the lives of thousands in nearby villages.

Mount Everest, moved three centimetres due to Nepal earthquake.