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Marcus Aurelius ( Latin : Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus ; [ 1 ] [ notes 1 ] April 26, 121 CE – March 17, 180 CE), was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180.
Public Domain Translation and Introduction to the Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius
Meditations (Τὰ εἰς ἑαυτόν, Ta eis heauton , literally "thoughts/writings addressed to himself") is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius , Roman Emperor 161–180 CE, setting forth his ideas on Stoic philosophy . [ edit ] Composition Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 books of the Meditations in "highly educated" Koine Greek [ 1 ] as a source for his own guidance and self-improvement.
Vice Admiral James Bond Stockdale (December 23, 1923 – July 5, 2005) was one of the most highly decorated officers in the history of the United States Navy .
Epictetus ( Ancient Greek : Ἐπίκτητος ; AD 55–135) was a Greek sage and Stoic philosopher . He was born a slave at Hierapolis , Phrygia (present day Pamukkale , Turkey ), and lived in Rome until his banishment, when he went to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece for the rest of his life. His teachings were written down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses . Philosophy, Epictetus taught, is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate , and are thus beyond our control; we should accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline.
A statue of Cato the Younger.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca ; ca. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher , statesman , dramatist , and in one work humorist , of the Silver Age of Latin literature .
Seneca's Essays Volume I
"Marcus Aurelius in his Meditations implores human beings to exercise their 'divine' gift of reason to uncover the laws of nature. For Marcus Aurelius our reason is what defines our core humanity, and our reason is governed by the same physical laws that govern the stars.
From about 300 BC to about AD 200 the Stoic philosophers of the Hellenistic and Roman worlds greatly advanced the causes of reason, civil life, law, and morality; but, apart from students of the subject, few persons today are aware of their contributions. 1 While some of their teachings have been superseded, many others are still quite tenable.
First published Mon Apr 15, 1996; substantive revision Mon Oct 4, 2010 Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Hellenistic period.
Table of Contents 1.
Know yourself --The Oracle of Delphi The unexamined life is not worth living. -- Socrates The question of "what is the right way to live" can only be found by looking inward .
The core dogmas of Stoicism (Keith Seddon, "Stoics," message 2928 ; cf. Pierre Hadot, The Inner Citadel: The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius , pp. 36-43 and Bruce MacLennan, Notes on Marcus Aurelius IV, B) are: (1) Our rationality is a fragment of God's (one consequence of which is that we are obliged to perfect it). (2) The only good is virtue and action motivated by virtue; the only evil is vice and action motivated by vice. (3) The only things entirely within our own power (all things being equal) are our intentions, judgements, desires and aversions.