Literature

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Authors. Toni Morrison is a prominent American author who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993 for her vivid representation of American culture, particularly the cultures of African Americans.

Authors

Authors often have both political and social impacts through their works, placing their work into the public sphere as a testament to their ideas. An author is broadly defined as "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created. Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work and can also be described as a writer.[1] Author of a written or legally copied work[edit] Legal significance[edit]

J. R. R. Tolkien. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE (/ˈtɒlkiːn/ TOL-keen;[a] 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

J. R. R. Tolkien

He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, Oxford from 1945 to 1959.[1] He was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Isaac Asimov. Isaac Asimov (/ˈaɪzɨk ˈæzɨmɒv/ EYE-zək AZ-ə-mov;[2] born Isaak Yudovich Ozimov; circa January 2, 1920[1] – April 6, 1992) was an American author and professor of biochemistry at Boston University, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books.

Isaac Asimov

Asimov was one of the most prolific writers of all time, having written or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards.[3] His books have been published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification.[4] The prolific Asimov also wrote mysteries and fantasy, as well as much nonfiction. Most of his popular science books explain scientific concepts in a historical way, going as far back as possible to a time when the science in question was at its simplest stage. He often provides nationalities, birth dates, and death dates for the scientists he mentions, as well as etymologies and pronunciation guides for technical terms. Isaac Asimov: The Foundations Of Science Fiction - James Gunn. Foundation series. The focus of the series is on the First Foundation and its attempts to overcome various obstacles during the formation and installation of the Second Empire.

Foundation series

All the while (and often unknown to its major actors), it is being silently guided by the unknown specifics of the Seldon plan. Publication history[edit] Original stories[edit] Themes. In contemporary literary studies, a theme is the central topic a text treats.[1] Themes can be divided into two categories: a work's thematic concept is what readers "think the work is about" and its thematic statement being "what the work says about the subject".[2] The most common contemporary understanding of theme is an idea or concept that is central to a story, which can often be summed in a single word (e.g. love, death, betrayal).

Themes

Typical examples of themes of this type are conflict between the individual and society; coming of age; humans in conflict with technology; nostalgia; and the dangers of unchecked ambition.[3][examples needed] A theme may be exemplified by the actions, utterances, or thoughts of a character in a novel. An example of this would be the theme loneliness in John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, wherein many of the characters seem to be lonely.

It may differ from the thesis—the text's or author's implied worldview.[4][example needed] Social engineering. The End of Eternity. Origins[edit] The novel reflects the state of scientific knowledge of its time, some of which has been superseded.

The End of Eternity

For instance, the power source for the time travellers is referred to as "Nova Sol", a link to the far future being used to tap the energy of the exploding Sun. It is now known that the Sun is too small to explode. The original End of Eternity appeared in 1986 in a collection called The Alternate Asimovs. Plot summary[edit] Virtual reality.

U.S.

Virtual reality

Navy personnel using a VR parachute trainer Virtual reality (VR), sometimes referred to as immersive multimedia, is a computer-simulated environment that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world or imagined worlds. Dreaming Is a Private Thing. "Dreaming Is a Private Thing" is a science fiction short story by Isaac Asimov, first published in the December 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and reprinted in the 1957 collection Earth is Room Enough.

Dreaming Is a Private Thing

Asimov's original title for the story was "A Hundred Million Dreams at Once", but F&SF editor Tony Boucher changed it, and Asimov liked the new title so kept it. Jesse Weill is founder and owner of Dreams Inc, a company that produces dreams for the individual's private use, just as films used to be viewed, although they've been superseded by 'dreamies'. Dreamies can be viewed in private at home by anyone with the equipment and cash to buy or rent them (like present day videos or DVDs). Time travel. Time travel is the concept of moving between different points in time in a manner analogous to moving between different points in space, generally using a theoretical invention, namely a time machine.

Time travel

It has a commonly recognized place in philosophy and fiction, but has a very limited application in real world physics, such as in quantum mechanics or wormholes. Although the 1895 novel The Time Machine by H. G. The End of Eternity. Fantasy. Fairy tales and legends, such as Dobrynya Nikitich's rescue of Zabava Putyatichna from the dragon Gorynych, have been an important source for fantasy.

Fantasy

In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form, especially since the worldwide success of The Lord of the Rings and related books by J. R. High fantasy. Genre overview[edit] High fantasy is defined as fantasy fiction set in an alternative, entirely fictional ("secondary") world, rather than the real, or "primary" world. The secondary world is usually internally consistent, but its rules differ in some way(s) from those of the primary world.

By contrast, low fantasy is characterized by being set in the primary, or "real" world, or a rational and familiar fictional world, with the inclusion of magical elements.[1][2][3][4] Nikki Gamble distinguishes three subtypes of high fantasy:[3] The Lord of the Rings. The work was initially intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, the other to be The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher.[4][5] For economic reasons The Lord of the Rings was published in three volumes over the course of a year from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955.[4][6] The three volumes were titled The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end of the third volume.

Some editions combine the entire work into a single volume. The Lord of the Rings has since been reprinted numerous times and translated into many languages. Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its themes and origins. The Silmarillion.

The Silmarillion /sɪlməˈrɪlɨən/ is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkien's mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son, Christopher Tolkien, in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay,[1] who later became a noted fantasy writer. The Hobbit. Set in a time "Between the Dawn of Færie and the Dominion of Men",[1] The Hobbit follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by the dragon, Smaug.

Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into more sinister territory.[2] The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature, or type of creature, of Tolkien's Wilderland. By accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey and adventurous side of his nature and applying his wits and common sense, Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence and wisdom.[3] The story reaches its climax in the Battle of Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict. Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story.

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