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Codex Gigas. Vulgate - Wikipedia. The Vulgate (/ˈvʌlɡeɪt, -ɡɪt/) is a late fourth-century Latin translation of the Bible that became, during the 16th century, the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible.

Vulgate - Wikipedia

The translation was largely the work of St. Jerome, who, in 382 AD, was commissioned by Pope Damasus I to organize the Vetus Latina ("Old Latin") collection of biblical texts in Latin then in use by the Church. Once published, it was widely adopted and eventually eclipsed the Vetus Latina and, by the 13th century, was known as the "versio vulgata" [1] (the "version commonly-used") or, more simply, in Latin as vulgata or in Greek as βουλγάτα ("Vulgate"). Masoretic Text - Wikipedia. The Masoretic[1] Text (MT, 𝕸, or ) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.

However, contemporary scholars seeking to understand the history of the Hebrew Bible’s text use a range of other sources.[2] These include Greek and Syriac translations, quotations from rabbinic manuscripts, the Samaritan Pentateuch and others such as the Dead Sea Scrolls. Sanskrit. Sanskrit (/ˈsænskrɪt/; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, "refined speech") is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone.


It is a standardized dialect of Old Indo-Aryan, originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European. Today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.

The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Name Varieties. Quran - Wikipedia. The Quran (English pronunciation: /kɔrˈɑːn/[n 1] kor-AHN , Arabic: القرآن‎ al-qur'ān, IPA: [qurˈʔaːn],[n 2] literally meaning "the recitation", also romanised Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah).[1] It is widely regarded by Muslims as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language.[2][3][4][5] Muslims consider the Quran to be the only book that has been protected by God from distortion or corruption.[6] However, some significant textual variations (employing different wordings) and deficiencies in the Arabic script mean the relationship between the text of today's Quran and an original text is unclear.[7] Quranic chapters are called suras and verses are called ayahs.

Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Some Muslims read Quranic ayahs (verses) with elocution, which is often called tajwīd. Etymology and meaning History Prophetic era Compilation Significance in Islam. Ninety-five Theses - Wikipedia. Background[edit] Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg and town preacher, wrote the Ninety-five Theses against the contemporary practice of the church with respect to indulgences.

Ninety-five Theses - Wikipedia

In the Catholic Church, indulgences are part of the economy of salvation. In this system, when Christians sin and confess, they are forgiven and will no longer receive eternal punishment in hell, but may still be liable to temporal punishment. This punishment could be satisfied by the penitent performing works of mercy. If the temporal punishment is not satisfied during life, it would need to be satisfied in purgatory. Woodcut of an indulgence-seller in a church from a 1521 pamphlet Popes are empowered to grant plenary indulgences, which provide complete satisfaction for any remaining temporal punishment due to sins, and these were purchased on behalf of people believed to be in purgatory.

Nicene Creed - Wikipedia. The Nicene Creed (Greek: Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or, τῆς πίστεως, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a Symbol of faith widely used in Christian liturgy.

Nicene Creed - Wikipedia

Codex Sinaiticus. Codex Sinaiticus (Modern Greek: Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, Hebrew: קודקס סינאיטיקוס‎‎; Shelfmarks and references: London, Brit.

Codex Sinaiticus

Book of Documents - Wikipedia. The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu, is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.

Book of Documents - Wikipedia

It is a collection of rhetorical prose attributed to figures of ancient China, and served as the foundation of Chinese political philosophy for over 2,000 years. Apologetics - Wikipedia. This article is about the systematic defense of a religious position.

Apologetics - Wikipedia

For the Christian parody band, see ApologetiX. Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the theological science or religious discipline of defending or proving the truth of religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.[1][2][3] Early Christian writers (c. 120–220) who defended their beliefs against critics and recommended their faith to outsiders were called Christian apologists.[4] In 21st century usage, 'apologetics' is often identified with debates over religion and theology. It may be less frequently heard in the UK[citation needed] (although the related word 'apologist' is used in a non-religious sense). Etymology[edit] Yoga Sutras of Patanjali - Wikipedia. The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are 196 Indian sūtras (aphorisms) that constitute the foundational text of Ashtanga Yoga, also called Raja Yoga.

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali - Wikipedia

In medieval times, Ashtanga Yoga was cast as one of the six orthodox āstika schools of Hindu philosophy. The Yoga Sutras were compiled around 400 CE by Patañjali, taking materials about yoga from older traditions. Together with his commentary they form the Pātañjalayogaśāstra. Author and dating[edit] Author[edit] Akhenaten - Wikipedia. Akhenaten (/ˌækəˈnɑːtən/;[1] also spelled Echnaton,[7] Akhenaton,[8] Ikhnaton,[9] and Khuenaten;[10][11] meaning "Effective for Aten") known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.

Akhenaten - Wikipedia

He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monolatristic, henotheistic, or even quasi-monotheistic. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods. Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. Early reign as Amenhotep IV The future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. Name change. Hebrew Bible. 11th-century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Aramaic Targum The Hebrew Bible (also Hebrew Scriptures, Jewish Bible (Judaica Bible); Latin: Biblia Hebraica) is a term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (Hebrew: תנ"ך‎), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament.

These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others). The content, to which the Protestant Old Testament closely corresponds, does not act as source to the deuterocanonical portions of the Roman Catholic, nor to the Anagignoskomena portions of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testaments. The term does not comment upon the naming, numbering or ordering of books, which varies with later Christian biblical canons.

Usage[edit] Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the Tanakh (Jewish canon) in relation to the many Christian biblical canons. Gnostic.Org: The Kybalion. Table of ContentsIntroduction by The Three Initiates 1.

Gnostic.Org: The Kybalion

Hermetic Philosophy: The lips of wisdom are closed, except to... 2. Seven Hermetic Principles: ..s/he who knows these.. 3. Mental Transmutation: Mind ... may be transmuted 4. Epic of Gilgamesh - Wikipedia. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for 'Gilgamesh'), king of Uruk, dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (circa 2100 BC). These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic.

The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few tablets of it have survived. Pāṇini - Wikipedia. A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Panini's grammar treatise from Kashmir Pāṇini (~6th–4th century BCE[1][2]), or Panini,[6] is the name of an ancient Sanskrit grammarian and a revered scholar in Hinduism.[2][7][8] Considered the father of Indian linguistics,[9] Panini likely lived in the northwest Indian subcontinent during the early Mahajanapada era.[3] Pāṇini is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra-style treatise on Sanskrit grammar,[8] estimated to have been completed between 6th and 4th century BCE.[1][2] His 3,959 verses on linguistics, syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period.[10][12] His aphoristic text attracted numerous bhasya (commentaries), of which Patanjali's Mahabhasya is the most famous in Hindu traditions.[6][13] His ideas influenced and attracted commentaries from scholars of other Indian religions such as Buddhism.[14] Etymology[edit]

The Kybalion Resource Page. Pyramid Texts - Wikipedia. Pyramid texts from Teti I's pyramid. Corpus Hermeticum - John Everard. The Alchemy web site on