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Sanskrit - Wikipedia

Sanskrit - Wikipedia
Sanskrit (/ˈsænskrɪt/; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, "refined speech") is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. It is a standardized dialect of Old Indo-Aryan, originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European. Today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Name The Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- may be translated as "put together, constructed, well or completely formed; refined, adorned, highly elaborated". Related:  Just So: An Odyssey into the Cosmic Web of Connection, Play, and True PleasureThe problems with philosophy

Michel Angot, Une histoire de la langue et de la littérature sanskrites (1) Le sanskrit a une histoire indienne mais aussi occidentale. Langue sacrée pour les brahmanes – mais qu'est ce qu'une langue sacrée ? – le sanskrit, découvert par les Européens principalement au XVIIIe siècle, devint rapidement la langue des origines de l'Occident tout en étant aussi perçue comme celle de l'Orient par excellence, la langue des mystères de l'Orient fabuleux. Ces quelques pages visent à dire comment fut perçu le sanskrit en Occident et en Orient et à donner une idée de la richesse de la littérature d'une langue vieille d'au moins quatre mille ans. Langue divine, langue originelle… Dans l'Occident scientifique, les mystères de la religion joints à la nostalgie des origines qui se maintenait malgré le développement de la science ont tracé un destin très particulier au sanskrit. En 1813, la naissance du terme « indo-européen » À l'époque, on tient le sanskrit plus ou moins comme la langue des origines et le Véda comme les « archives du Paradis », le mot est de M. Non !

Pratītyasamutpāda Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद; Pali: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda) is commonly translated as dependent origination or dependent arising. The term is used in the Buddhist teachings in two senses: On a general level, it refers to one of the central concepts in the Buddhist tradition—that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions.On a specific level, the term is also used to refer to a specific application of this general principle—namely the twelve links of dependent origination. Etymology[edit] Pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद) consists of two terms: pratitya: "having depended"samutpada: "arising", "rise, production, origin"[web 1] The term has been translated into English variously as dependent origination, dependent arising,[citation needed] interdependent co-arising,[citation needed] conditioned arising,[citation needed] and conditioned genesis. The Dalai Lama explains: In Sanskrit the word for dependent-arising is pratityasamutpada.

Allegory Literary device As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences. Allegory (in the sense of the practice and use of allegorical devices and works) has occurred widely throughout history in all forms of art, largely because it can readily illustrate or convey complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey (semi-)hidden or complex meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the author wishes to convey.[2] Many allegories use personifications of abstract concepts. Etymology[edit] Types[edit] Classical allegory[edit] In the case of "interpreting allegorically," Theagenes appears to be our earliest example. Biblical allegory[edit] J.

Jainism Indian religion Jainism () also known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion. Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four Tirthankaras (supreme preachers of Dharma), with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago; the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to 9th century BCE; and the twenty-fourth tirthankara, Mahavira around 600 BCE. Jainism is considered to be an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every time cycle of the cosmology. Jain monks, after positioning themselves in the sublime state of soul consciousness, take five main vows: ahiṃsā (non-violence), satya (truth), asteya (not stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Beliefs and philosophy[edit] The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration). Dravya (Ontological facts)[edit] Soul and karma[edit]

Avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: avatāra), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", is the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.[1][2] The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to any guru or revered human being.[3] The word avatar does not appear in the Vedic literature,[5] but appears in verb forms in post-Vedic literature, and as a noun particularly in the Puranic literature after the 6th century CE. Despite that, the concept of an avatar is compatible with the content of the Vedic literature like the Upanishads as it is symbolic imagery of the Saguna Brahman concept in the philosophy of Hinduism. The Rigveda describes Indra as endowed with a mysterious power of assuming any form at will.[7][8] The Bhagavad Gita expounds the doctrine of Avatara but with terms other than avatar. Incarnation concepts similar to avatar are also found in Buddhism, Christianity,[5] and other religions. Etymology and meaning[edit] Types[edit]

Histoire du sanskrit Cet article ou une de ses sections doit être recyclé (indiquez la date de pose grâce au paramètre date). Une réorganisation et une clarification du contenu paraissent nécessaires. Discutez des points à améliorer en page de discussion ou précisez les sections à recycler en utilisant {{section à recycler}}. Cette page contient des caractères spéciaux ou non latins. Des informations de cet article ou section devraient être mieux reliées aux sources mentionnées dans la bibliographie, sources ou liens externes (indiquez la date de pose grâce au paramètre date). Améliorez sa vérifiabilité en les associant par des références à l'aide d'appels de notes. Évolution de la langue[modifier | modifier le code] Paléo-indien : du hittite au védique[modifier | modifier le code] Civilisation de la vallée de l'Indus[modifier | modifier le code] La langue que parlait l'ancienne civilisation — peut-être d'origine sumérienne ? Proto-indo-hittite[modifier | modifier le code] Indo-iranien[modifier | modifier le code]

Saṃsāra Cyclicality of all life, matter, existence Bhavachakra in Buddhism describing saṃsāra Saṃsāra (Devanagari: संसार) is a Pali/Sanskrit word that means "world". It is also the concept of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental belief of most Indian religions.[3][4] Popularly, it is the cycle of death and rebirth.[5] Saṃsāra is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration, karmic cycle, reincarnation or Punarjanman, and "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence".[6] Etymology and terminology[edit] Saṃsāra (Devanagari: संसार) means "wandering", as well as "world" wherein the term connotes "cyclic change". saṃsāra, a fundamental concept in all Indian religions, is linked to the karma theory and refers to the belief that all living beings cyclically go through births and rebirths. The word saṃsāra is related to Saṃsṛti, the latter referring to the "course of mundane existence, transmigration, flow, circuit or stream".[19]

Hindus Adherents of the religion of Hinduism Hindus (Hindustani: [ˈɦɪndu] ( listen); ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.[54][55] Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent.[56] The term "Hindu" traces back to Old Persian which derived these names from the Sanskrit name Sindhu (सिन्धु ), referring to the river Indus. The Greek cognates of the same terms are "Indus" (for the river) and "India" (for the land of the river).[58][59] The term "Hindu" also implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu (Indus) River.[61] By the 16th century CE, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims.[61][a][b] Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant, whose use today may be considered derogatory.[62][63] Etymology Disputes

Ambiguity The concept of ambiguity is generally contrasted with vagueness. In ambiguity, specific and distinct interpretations are permitted (although some may not be immediately obvious), whereas with information that is vague, it is difficult to form any interpretation at the desired level of specificity. Context may play a role in resolving ambiguity. For example, the same piece of information may be ambiguous in one context and unambiguous in another. Linguistic forms[edit] Structural analysis of an ambiguous Spanish sentence:Pepe vio a Pablo enfurecidoInterpretation 1: When Pepe was angry, then he saw PabloInterpretation 2: Pepe saw that Pablo was angry.Here, the syntactic tree in figure represents interpretation 2. The context in which an ambiguous word is used often makes it evident which of the meanings is intended. More problematic are words whose senses express closely related concepts. Lexical ambiguity is contrasted with semantic ambiguity. Music[edit] Visual art[edit] Expressions[edit] .

Krishna Major deity in Hinduism The anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are generally titled as Krishna Leela. He is a central character in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana and the Bhagavad Gita, and is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical, theological, and mythological texts.[14] They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, and as the universal supreme being.[15] His iconography reflects these legends, and shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young boy with Radha or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.[16] The synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature.[17] In some sub-traditions, Krishna is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, and this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism. Names and epithets[edit] As a name of Vishnu, Krishna is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Coins[edit]

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