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The study of speciation, the evolutionary processes that form new species, has long been one of the central topics of evolutionary biology. This central position is partly because the study of how new species arise, diverge and remain separate draws together many strands of study, including population genetics, ecology, behaviour, biogeography and biodiversity. It also remains one of the most intriguing questions in evolution. From appearing virtually ‘solved’ in the mid Twentieth Century, when the geographical classification of speciation mechanisms into allopatric (by far the most dominant explanation), sympatric and parapatric was almost all that needed to be said by way of explanation, speciation has recently undergone a period of intensive study with many important advances. The old frameworks for understanding speciation, such as the geographical classification mentioned above, have begun to look unsatisfactory.
Simple and sophisticated Bonferroni adjustment Anywhere where you compare three or more groups or conditions or repeated measures and get a significant result on the overall test (e.g. ANOVA , Kruskal-Wallis , Friedman…) you usually then want to know which pairs of groups or conditions are sig different. A sig result on the overall test does not tell you this… It just tells you that at least one pair is different. One way to resolve this is to inspect a suitable graph, such as an error bar graph, and see which pairs look most different.
Quick tour A magnificent 200 year old cork oak, able to thrive on the poorest mediteranean soils. Thousands of years ago people learnt to harvest their spongy bark for a uniquely versatile material.