Communication Professor: The Value of Critical and Creative Thinking. One accepted definition says critical thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. With this definition as a foundation, the following discussion includes a critical thinker’s attributes and frameworks that help develop critical thinking skills. Characteristics of Critical Thinking Critical thinkers usually do the following: Ask pertinent questions.
Define criteria for analyzing ideas. Assess statements and arguments. Examine and weigh beliefs, assumptions, and opinions against facts. Why is Critical Thinking Important? PerceptionAssumptionEmotionLanguageArgumentFallacy Scientific reasoningReasoning or logicProblem solving Importance of Critical Thinking in the Classroom We want to encourage deeper levels of thinking on topics, concepts, events, beliefs, cultures and society.
Critical thinking is about how we use our intelligence and knowledge to reach objective and rationale viewpoints. Various sources including: POLL: Should Albuquerque bring back a teen curfew? ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. —At least one city leader says it's time to put a teen curfew back on the books after three violent shootings in the last month. In those deadly shootings, teens were either the victims or suspects. Now, city Councilor Ken Sanchez wants to work with state lawmakers to bring a curfew back. In the 1990s, Albuquerque had a curfew for teenagers, but the American Civil Liberties Union fought to strike it down and won. Sanchez said he plans on meeting with Gov. "It's just very tragic and unfortunate, especially when you're hearing 14-year-olds, 15-year-olds losing their lives and they're out after midnight.
But the American Civil Liberties Union says this battle has come up again and again over the last 20 years. "I don't think it would be a good message to send to our youth that they are effectively under martial law and that their rights don't apply under certain times of the day," said Peter Simonson, with the New Mexico ACLU. Mobile users: Tap for video.
A Status Report on Youth Curfews in America's Cities: A 347-City Survey. Many cities have imposed youth curfews in recent years. A 1995 survey by The U.S. Conference of Mayors found that 272 cities, 70 percent of those surveyed, had a nighttime curfew. Fifty-seven percent of these cities considered their curfew effective. Since that survey was done the trend toward establishing curfews—both nighttime and daytime—has continued and more is known about their impact. This report updates the 1995 survey and provides additional information on the effectiveness of those curfews. The 1997 survey gathered information from 347 cities with a population over 30,000. Mayors and city officials were asked for information on: Four out of five of the survey cities (276) have a nighttime youth curfew. The 276 survey cities with a curfew are listed below. The 71 survey cities listed below do not have a youth curfew. Curfews don't keep kids out of trouble. Youth curfews are popular.
In poll after poll, Americans support laws that restrict teenagers' activities during certain hours of the day and night. Youth curfews are also logical. If youngsters are getting into trouble, it makes sense to get them off the streets. There's only one problem with youth curfews: They don't work. And we shouldn't kid ourselves that they do. Yet that's what we're doing in Philadelphia, where Mayor Nutter recently extended a 9 p.m. curfew on Friday and Saturday nights for all unaccompanied minors in Center City and University City. But the city already had a youth curfew in place, long before the flash-mob mayhem began. And that hasn't done anything to stem the tide of youth violence in Philadelphia. That's what happened in Detroit, after it adopted a youth curfew in 1976. Nor do we have any solid evidence that youth curfews lower the overall rate of juvenile crime. So why are we so wedded to youth curfews?
So curfews boomed, too. In fact, they don't. Reasons for Teen Curfews. Logic and Argument | Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. What is an Argument? We've talked in depth about what constitutes an argument in What is an Academic Paper? Still, it's worth repeating the fundamental elements of argument here. A good argument will include: a thesis or claim that declares the writer's position on the problem at hand;an acknowledgment of other perspectives;a set of clearly defined premises that illustrate the argument's line of reasoning;evidence that validates the argument's premises;a conclusion that convinces the reader that the argument has been soundly and persuasively made. If your paper has these essential features, then you've probably presented a sound argument.
Toulmin's Analysis of Argument One way of assessing your the validity of your argument is via a method created by Stephen Toulmin, a philosopher and educator who committed his career to the analysis of moral reasoning. Toulmin classified six important elements of argument. Reviewing the Grounds of Your Argument Have you suppressed evidence? OP-ED: Why Don’t Youth Curfews Work? Forget constitutional rights or fairness; doesn’t it seem logical that a curfew requiring police to remove an entire group of people from public spaces for hours would at least reduce public crimes and safety risks involving that group? Well, it doesn’t. Research consistently “fails to support the argument that curfews reduce crime or criminal victimization,” a 2003 review of multiple studies found. Monrovia, California’s widely acclaimed youth curfew famously celebrated by then-President Bill Clinton was indeed followed by a decline in crime — one that was much larger during non-curfew hours than during curfew hours.
Vernon, Connecticut’s youth curfew was followed by increases in crime, particularly youthful offending, while nearby cities without curfews enjoyed decreases. Studies of dozens of cities across the nation found no effect or bad effects following youth curfews. An 18-year analysis of 21 cities in California found youth curfews useless or worse. National Youth Rights Association » Curfew FAQ. We have curfews? What are they? Curfews usually exist only in times of national emergency or military occupation. On June 14, 1940 when the Germans occupied Paris they imposed an 8 o’clock curfew. The United States puts a new twist on this familiar concept by setting curfews during times of peace for all young people under a certain age. Curfew laws are often set by a city or a state and make it illegal for a person underage to be outside during certain times. What are penalties for breaking curfew? That depends on the law; each one is different.
What are daytime curfews? In addition to laws that make it a crime to be outside at night, there are also laws that make it a crime to be out during the day. Does my city have a curfew? Possibly, youth curfews are spreading in cities and states all across the country. Do curfews cut down on youth crime? No. Lets think about this rationally. Curfews don’t affect crime and only hurt innocent youth, repeal them. That’s a family decision. Wrong. Curfew. Curfew Curfews have reemerged recently as a popular option for policymakers in their efforts to deter juvenile victimization and delinquency. Imposed on and off since the turn of the century, curfews tend to receive increased attention when there is a perceived need for more stringent efforts at social control.
For example, curfew ordinances were originally enacted in the 1890's to decrease crime among immigrant youth. During World War II, curfews were perceived as an effective control for parents who were busy helping with the war effort. More recent interest in juvenile curfew ordinances came as a response to growing juvenile crime during the 1970's.48 Many States have laws enabling localities to enact curfew ordinances, with Georgia, Minnesota, Ohio, Tennessee, and Texas recently enacting laws of this sort, according to NCSL.49 Only Hawaii has enacted statewide curfew legislation.
Curfew laws vary with respect to the locale affected, timeframe, and sanctions. Pros and Cons In Qutb v. National Youth Rights Association » Curfew FAQ. Curfews don't keep kids out of trouble. Why Curfews Don't Work | Politics & Government | Oakland, Berkeley, Bay Area & California | Robert Gammon. In the aftermath of the tragic daytime shooting of three-year-old Carlos Nava this summer, Oakland Councilmen Larry Reid and Ignacio De La Fuente renewed their call for a youth curfew in the city.
Even though the suspects in Nava's killing are adults, the councilmen contend that Oakland police need as many law enforcement tools as possible to cope with this year's spike in violent crime. Their proposal, which would make it illegal for youth under the age of eighteen to be out past 10 p.m. without a parent or guardian, also has been endorsed recently by the Oakland Tribune editorial board, and has been pushed by Tribune columnist Tammerlin Drummond and San Francisco Chronicle columnist Chip Johnson. However, a closer look at youth curfews reveals that there's little evidence that they lower juvenile crime rates in other cities, and instead can waste precious police resources.
In an interview, De La Fuente said he doesn't view curfews as a panacea. A Status Report on Youth Curfews in America's Cities: A 347-City Survey. Affirming the Consequent. Taxonomy: Logical Fallacy > Formal Fallacy > Propositional Fallacy > Affirming the Consequent Sibling Fallacy: Denying the Antecedent Alias: Asserting the Consequent Affirmation of the Consequent Example: Never has a book been subjected to such pitiless search for error as the Holy Bible. Source: Hillyer Straton, Baptists: Their Message and Mission (1941), p. 49 Analysis Exposition: The consequent of a conditional statement is the part that usually follows "then". For example, in the statement "if today is Tuesday, then this must be Belgium", "this must be Belgium" is the consequent.
Affirming the antecedent of a conditional and concluding its consequent is a validating form of argument, usually called "modus ponens" in propositional logic. Exposure: Together with its similar sibling fallacy, Denying the Antecedent, instances of Affirming the Consequent are most likely to seem valid when we assume the converse of the argument's conditional premiss. Source: A. Analysis of the Example: Fallacies. A fallacy is a kind of error in reasoning. The list of fallacies contains 209 names of the most common fallacies, and it provides brief explanations and examples of each of them. Fallacies should not be persuasive, but they often are. Fallacies may be created unintentionally, or they may be created intentionally in order to deceive other people. The vast majority of the commonly identified fallacies involve arguments, although some involve explanations, or definitions, or other products of reasoning.
Sometimes the term "fallacy" is used even more broadly to indicate any false belief or cause of a false belief. An informal fallacy is fallacious because of both its form and its content. The discussion that precedes the long alphabetical list of fallacies begins with an account of the ways in which the term "fallacy" is vague. Table of Contents 1. The more frequent the error within public discussion and debate the more likely it is to have a name. The term "fallacy" is not a precise term. Children in Adult Prison.
Print E-Mail Share Across the United States, thousands of children have been sentenced as adults and sent to adult prisons. Nearly 3000 nationwide have been sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. Children as young as 13 years old have been tried as adults and sentenced to die in prison, typically without any consideration of their age or circumstances of the offense. EJI argued in the United States Supreme Court that death-in-prison sentences imposed on children are unconstitutional, and the Court has now banned death-in-prison sentences for children convicted of non-homicide crimes and mandatory death-in-prison sentences for all children. Many young children in America are imperiled by abuse, neglect, domestic and community violence, and poverty. Fourteen states have no minimum age for trying children as adults. Some 10,000 children are housed in adult jails and prisons on any given day in America. Stats - Does Treating Kids Like Adults Make A Difference? | Juvenile Justice.
Two assumptions are behind recent legislation passed in many U.S. states which make it easier to try juvenile offenders as adults. Young offenders will receive sentences in the adult criminal system which are harsher and more proportional to their crimes. The threat of this harsher punishment will result in lowered juvenile crime rates. Although there has not been extensive research into the deterrent effects of the stricter laws, the evidence that does exist indicates that deterrent effects are minimal or nonexistent, and that, in fact, trying juveniles in criminal court may actually result in higher rates of reoffending.
To date, there's no extensive research comparing the lengths of prison sentences received by juveniles convicted in criminal court with those who remained in the juvenile system. A 1996 Texas study found that juveniles sentenced in adult court did receive longer terms than they would have received in juvenile court. Youth Crime/Adult Time: Is Justice Served?  Id. The Trouble With Trying Children as Adults. There are numerous issues surrounding trying juveniles as adults – particularly in cases where the possibility of life without parole exists. The ideas that shaped juvenile justice for over a hundred years have been degraded and attacked, particularly in state government, with a view that juveniles deserve harsher punishment. These ideas fit the overarching “tough on crime” view of many politicians (and often their constituents).
But does this view reflect reality, or is it a political convenience that preys on the pain of victims and the fear of the public? Some argue that juveniles are responsible for their actions, that they are in essence miniature adults who deserve what they get. One instance where juvenile violence and restoration arise is in conflicts that involve children as combatants. Many of the questions that arise can be applied to both examples. In 2005, the U.S. I believe that a way to balance these considerations can be found.