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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse . [ 1 ] Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles clustered beneath the membrane in the axon terminal, on the presynaptic side of a synapse.
Enzymes ( pron.: / ˈ ɛ n z aɪ m z / ) are large biological molecules responsible for the thousands of chemical interconversions that sustain life. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] They are highly selective catalysts , greatly accelerating both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions, from the digestion of food to the synthesis of DNA. Most enzymes are proteins , although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified. Enzymes adopt a specific three-dimensional structure , and may employ organic (e.g. biotin) and inorganic (e.g. magnesium ion) cofactors to assist in catalysis.
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food . It can be purely a commercial choice to provide extra nutrients in a food, or sometimes it is a public health policy which aims to reduce numbers of people with dietary deficiencies in a population. Diets that lack variety can be deficient in certain nutrients.
Nutraceutical , a portmanteau of the words “ nutrition ” and “ pharmaceutical ” and was coined by Dr. Stephen L. DeFelice, founder and chairman of the Foundation of Innovation Medicine (FIM), Crawford, New Jersey. [ 1 ] The term is applied to products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products , specific diets, genetically modified food , and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages.
Xanthine ( pron.: / ˈ z æ n θ iː n / or / ˈ z æ n θ aɪ n / ; archaically xanthic acid ) (3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Eugeroics are a chemical class of psychoactive drugs which act as stimulants , and are also known as wakefulness-promoting agents . They are used mainly in the treatment of sleeping disorders , excessive daytime sleepiness and narcolepsy , though they are also used merely to counteract fatigue and lethargy and to enhance motivation and productivity . Eugeroics appear to function primarily by increasing catecholaminergic ( adrenergic , dopaminergic ) and histaminergic activity in the brain .
The N , N , N -trimethylethanolammonium cation, with an undefined counteranion, X − In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N , N , N -trimethylethanolammonium cation . Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin .
Amphetamine ( USAN , contracted from alphamethyl-phenethylamine or α-methylphenethylamine ) is 1-phenylpropan-2-amine or C9H13N. Also called amfetamine ( INN ).
Racetams are a class of nootropic drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus. [ citation needed ] [ edit ] Mechanism There is no universally accepted mechanism of action for racetams.
An analgesic is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia , relief from pain .
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent ) [ 1 ] is a drug that inhibits anxiety. Some recreational drugs like alcoholic beverages (ethanol) induce anxiolysis.
Nootropics ( pron.: / n oʊ . ə ˈ t r ɒ p ɨ k s / noh-ə- TROP -iks ), also referred to as smart drugs , memory enhancers , neuro enhancers , cognitive enhancers , and intelligence enhancers , are drugs , supplements , nutraceuticals , and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition , memory , intelligence , motivation , attention , and concentration. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by the Romanian Dr.