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2013 SoE report full. Climate change and the city: Building capacity for urban adaptation. Open Access Highlights Cities and urban areas are facing a strong adaptation imperative.

Climate change and the city: Building capacity for urban adaptation

Spatial planning can support proactive cross-cutting urban adaptation. Adaptation would benefit from ‘repositioning’ to emphasise links to core urban agenda. Collaborative approaches are vital to meet the urban adaptation challenge. Abstract The significant shifts in climate variables projected for the 21st century, coupled with the observed impacts of ongoing extreme weather and climate events, ensures that adaptation to climate change is set to remain a pressing issue for urban areas over the coming decades. Keywords Climate change; Adaptation; Cities; Urban; Spatial planning 1. 1.1. Climate change has emerged as one of the defining issues of the early 21st century.

The extent of future climate change depends on a number of variables including the pace of greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation rates, and the response of ecosystems to the changing climate. James Hansen’s controversial sea level rise paper has now been published online. The village of Ilulissat is seen near icebergs that broke off from the Jakobshavn Glacier on July 24, 2013 in Ilulissat, Greenland.

James Hansen’s controversial sea level rise paper has now been published online

(Joe Raedle/Getty Images) This story has been updated. It has been widely discussed — but not yet peer reviewed. Now, though, you can at least read it for yourself and see what you think. A lengthy, ambitious, and already contested paper by longtime NASA climate scientist James Hansen and 16 colleagues appeared online Thursday in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, an open-access journal published by the European Geosciences Union.

And given how much attention the work has already received, it’s likely to generate plenty of comments from fellow scientists. The study raises the possibility of a more rapid rate of sea level rise in this century than forecast by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, whose research is widely regarded as the gold standard of climate research — but also often criticized for being too conservative. COP21 - United Nations Conference on Climate Change. Join the People's Climate March. AR4 SYR Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers - 4 Adaptation and mitigation options. A wide array of adaptation options is available, but more extensive adaptation than is currently occurring is required to reduce vulnerability to climate change.

AR4 SYR Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers - 4 Adaptation and mitigation options

There are barriers, limits and costs, which are not fully understood. {4.2} Societies have a long record of managing the impacts of weather- and climate-related events. Nevertheless, additional adaptation measures will be required to reduce the adverse impacts of projected climate change and variability, regardless of the scale of mitigation undertaken over the next two to three decades.

Moreover, vulnerability to climate change can be exacerbated by other stresses. These arise from, for example, current climate hazards, poverty and unequal access to resources, food insecurity, trends in economic globalisation, conflict and incidence of diseases such as HIV/AIDS. {4.2} Some planned adaptation to climate change is already occurring on a limited basis.

Table SPM.4. Figure SPM.9. Seo 2015 Economic Affairs. The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) A 'cap and trade' system EU ETS: Key facts Operates in the 28 EU countries and the three EEA-EFTA states (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway) Covers around 45% of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions Limits emissions from: More than 11,000 heavy energy-using installations in power generation and manufacturing industry Aircraft operators performing aviation activities in the EU and EFTA states For a detailed overview, see: EU ETS factsheet (466 kB) EU ETS Handbook (3.19 Mb) The EU ETS works on the 'cap and trade' principle.

The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

In 2020, emissions from sectors covered by the EU ETS will be 21% lower than in 2005. Within the cap, companies receive or buy emission allowances which they can trade with one another as needed. After each year a company must surrender enough allowances to cover all its emissions, otherwise heavy fines are imposed. Phase 3 brings significant changes Launched in 2005, the EU ETS is now in its third phase, running from 2013 to 2020. Almost half of EU emissions covered.