GCSE Bitesize: Hydrocarbons and alkanes. Alkanes. Hydrocarbons which contain only single bonds are called alkanes.
They are called saturated hydrocarbons because there is a hydrogen in every possible location. This gives them a general formula CnH2n+2. The first four alkanes are methane, ethane, propane, and butane with the Lewis symbols shown below. Past this number of carbons, the -ane suffix is retained and the number prefixes penta-, hexa-, hept-, oct-, non-, dec-, etc are used. Alkyl groups are used as substituents, and alkane derivatives have many applications. The alkanes are highly combustible and are valuable as clean fuels, burning to form water and carbon dioxide. Alkane derivatives are used in hundreds of products such as plastics, paints, drugs, cosmetics, detergents, insedticides, etc., so the fossil fuel resource from which we obtain the alkanes is much too valuable to burn it all as a motor fuel. Chemical compound. Chemical compound. Chemical compound. Chemical compound. Alkanes Alkanes, hydrocarbons in which all the bonds are single, have molecular formulas that satisfy the general expression CnH2n + 2 (where n is an integer).
Carbon is sp3 hybridized (three electron pairs are involved in bonding, forming a tetrahedral complex), and each C—C and C—H bond is a sigma (σ) bond (see chemical bonding). In order of increasing number of carbon atoms, methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), and propane (C3H8) are the first three members of the series. Methane, ethane, and propane are the only alkanes uniquely defined by their molecular formula. For C4H10 two different alkanes satisfy the rules of chemical bonding (namely, that carbon has four bonds and hydrogen has one in neutral molecules). Different compounds that have the same molecular formula are called isomers.
There is no simple arithmetic relationship between the number of carbon atoms in a formula and the number of isomers. Chemical compound. MyOrganicChemistry - Butane. Propane Facts. Propane is a hydrocarbon (C3H8) and is sometimes referred to as liquefied petroleum gas, LP-Gas or LPG.
Propane is produced from both natural gas processing and crude oil refining. It is nontoxic, colorless and virtually odorless. As with natural gas, an identifying odor is added so the gas can be readily detected. Propane Is a Safe Fuel The propane industry has developed numerous methods to ensure the safe transport and use of propane: Propane equipment and appliances are manufactured to rigorous safety standards.Propane has a narrow range of flammability when compared with other petroleum products. What is Ethane? Print Email Save Image Credit: elmhurst.edu Main Image: Ethane is a hydrocarbon gas made from petroleum.
Prior to the 1960s, ethane and larger molecules were typically not separated from the methane component of natural gas, but simply burnt along with the methane as a fuel. Who discovered Ethane? Ethane was first discovered by Michael Faraday, an English chemist and physicist in 1834, by the electrolysis (a method of using a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction) of a solution of potassium aceatate.
How propane is made - material, manufacture, used, processing, parts, components, industry. Background Propane is a naturally occurring gas composed of three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms.
It is created along with a variety of other hydrocarbons (such as crude oil, butane, and gasoline) by the decomposition and reaction of organic matter over long periods of time. After it is released from oil fields deep within Earth, propane is separated from other petrochemicals and refined for commercial use. Propane belongs to a class of materials known as liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs), which are known for their ability to be converted to liquid under relatively low pressures. As a liquid, propane is 270 times more compact than it is as a gas, which allows it to be easily transported and stored as a liquid until ready for use.
The value of petroleum products has long been recognized by the civilized world, with documented examples of their use stretching back more than 5,000 years. Raw Materials The Manufacturing Process Quality Control Byproducts/Waste The Future Books. What are the uses of methane? Chemical reactions with this compound also yield carbon tetrachloride, methanol, chloroform and carbon black.
Carbon black is used in the rubber of tires as a reinforcing agent. Chloroform is utilized in applications such as coolant and spot remover. Carbon tetrachloride is the active ingredient in fire extinguishers. What are some uses of butane? Facts About Natural Gas. Propane - Three carbon atoms; chemical formula C3H8.
Truck fleets, forklifts, barbecue grills, portable stoves and even the new Roush Ford F-150 pick-up use propane fuel. Propane's octane rating is noticeably higher than gasoline at 110. Many homes not connected to municipal (methane) gas pipelines use propane for their appliances and furnaces. Other fuel uses for propane: Refrigerators. Gas quality standards vary depending on the pipeline system and are usually a function of each pipeline system's design and the markets that it serves. Sour Gas - Natural gas that contains detectable amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is called sour gas.
Sweet Gas - Natural gas that does not contain hydrogen sulfide is considered sweet gas. Wet Gas - Wet gas is natural gas that contains naturally liquid hydrocarbons (called "condensate") with the chemical composition of gasoline.