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Antebellum America 3

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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Background The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (gwah-dah-loop-ay ee-dahl-go), which brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) was signed on February 2, 1848, at Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city north of the capital where the Mexican government had fled with the advance of U.S. forces. To explore the circumstances that led to this war with Mexico, visit the Teaching with Documents lesson, "Lincoln's Spot Resolutions. " With the defeat of its army and the fall of the capital, Mexico City, in September 1847 the Mexican government surrendered to the United States and entered into negotiations to end the war.

The peace talks were negotiated by Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the State Department, who had accompanied General Winfield Scott as a diplomat and President Polk's representative. Trist and General Scott, after two previous unsuccessful attempts to negotiate a treaty with Santa Anna, determined that the only way to deal with Mexico was as a conquered enemy. The Documents. Kansas-Nebraska Act Exclusive Videos & Features. John Brown's Raid in American Memory. Inside The Lincoln Douglas Debates - Documentary.

Digital Story: Secrets and Codes of the Underground Railroad. Nat Turner's Rebellion - War & Expansion: Crash Course US History #17. John_Brown_daguerreotype_c1856.png (PNG Image, 694 × 868 pixels) HWFireHouseBrown.jpg (JPEG Image, 620 × 420 pixels) Second Debate: Freeport, Illinois - Lincoln Home National Historic Site. Mr. Douglas' Speech Ladies and Gentlemen-The silence with which you have listened to Mr. Lincoln during his hour is creditable to this vast audience, composed of men of various political parties. Nothing is more honorable to any large mass of people assembled for the purpose of a fair discussion, than that kind and respectful attention that is yielded not only to your political friends, but to those who are opposed to you in politics.

I am glad that at last I have brought Mr. Lincoln to the conclusion that he had better define his position on certain political questions to which I called his attention at Ottawa. He there showed no disposition, no inclination, to answer them. First, he desires to know if the people of Kansas shall form a Constitution by means entirely proper and unobjectionable and ask admission into the Union as a State, before they have the requisite population for a member of Congress, whether I will vote for that admission. The next question propounded to me by Mr. Facethenation_sept08_631.jpg__800x600_q85_crop.jpg (JPEG Image, 631 × 300 pixels) Debatex_030801.jpg (JPEG Image, 523 × 400 pixels)

The Dred Scott Case. DredScott.jpg (JPEG Image, 600 × 850 pixels) DredScott_DredandHarrietScott.jpg (JPEG Image, 340 × 510 pixels) Lincolns_shifting_1854.jpg (JPEG Image, 500 × 320 pixels) 1854OstendManifesto.pdf. Ostend_doctrine.jpg (JPEG Image, 1499 × 1113 pixels) - Scaled (68%) Eastmantp.jpg (JPEG Image, 220 × 275 pixels) UncleTomsCabinCover.jpg (JPEG Image, 1159 × 2012 pixels) - Scaled (49%) 220px-John_Brown_-_Treason_broadside,_1859.png (PNG Image, 220 × 160 pixels) Reward.jpg (JPEG Image, 1532 × 1320 pixels) - Scaled (66%) 1_3217882.jpg (JPEG Image, 320 × 240 pixels) 00080486.gif (GIF Image, 400 × 261 pixels) Slavery in America - Black History. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries people were kidnapped from the continent of Africa, forced into slavery in the American colonies and exploited to work as indentured servants and labor in the production of crops such as tobacco and cotton.

By the mid-19th century, America’s westward expansion and the abolition movement provoked a great debate over slavery that would tear the nation apart in the bloody Civil War. Though the Union victory freed the nation’s four million enslaved people, the legacy of slavery continued to influence American history, from the Reconstruction, to the civil rights movement that emerged a century after emancipation and beyond. When Did Slavery Start? Hundreds of thousands of Africans, both free and enslaved, aided the establishment and survival of colonies in the Americas and the New World. READ MORE: The Last Slave Ship Survivor Gave an Interview in the 1930s. It Just Surfaced But after the Revolutionary War, the new U.S. Cotton Gin Though the U.S. Underground Railroad. Map of various Underground Railroad routes §Political background[edit] At its peak, nearly 1,000 slaves per year escaped from slave-holding states using the Underground Railroad – more than 5,000 court cases for escaped slaves were recorded – many fewer than the natural increase of the enslaved population.

The resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slaveholders was immense. Under the original Fugitive Slave Law of 1793, officials from slave-holding states were responsible for the recovery of runaway slaves, but citizens and governments of many free states ignored the law, and the Underground Railroad thrived. §Structure[edit] Harriet Tubman (photo H. Quaker abolitionist Levi Coffin and his wife Catherine helped more than 2,000 slaves escape to freedom. The escape network was not literally underground nor a railroad. §Route[edit] Struggle for freedom in a Maryland barn.[19] §Traveling conditions[edit] §Terminology[edit] §Folklore[edit] §Criticism[edit] Gabriel's Rebellion E-102 | Marker History.

Gabriel’s Rebellion Marker, E-102 Gabriel, a slave of Thomas Prosser of nearby Brookfield plantation, planned a slave insurrection against Richmond on 30 Aug. 1800. The slaves intended to kidnap Governor James Monroe and compel him to support political, social, and economic equality but intense rains delayed the insurgents' scheme. Mosby Sheppard, of Meadow Farm, informed of the plot by family slaves Tom and Pharaoh, dispatched a warning letter to the governor.

Monroe called out the militia and Gabriel, his plans foiled, fled to Norfolk. Authorities there captured and returned him to Richmond. Marker Information: Year On Marker: 1997Region: Richmond RegionGeographic Location: Henrico CountyPhysical Description of Location: Richmond, VA 23227. THOUGHT PROVOKING PERSPECTIVES: Black History: Gabriel’s Rebellion. Gabriel Prosser was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800. Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twenty-five followers were taken captive and hanged in punishment. In reaction, Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions. History reports that Gabriel was born into slavery at Brookfield, a tobacco plantation in Henrico County, Virginia, Gabriel had two brothers, Solomon and Martin.

They were all held by Thomas Prosser, the owner. As Gabriel and Solomon were trained as blacksmiths, their father may have had that skill. Gabriel was also taught to read and write. During the spring and summer of 1800, Gabriel planned the revolt. On August 30, 2007, Governor Kaine informally pardoned Gabriel and his co-conspirators. Nat Turner. Nat Turner was a slave who led a failed 1831 slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. That attempt became a reference to the justification for the Civil War.

Early years Nat Turner was born on a small plantation in Virginia, owned by slaveholder Benjamin Turner.* Nat's mother was born in Africa and had been shipped to the United States as a slave. She taught her son to hate slavery. His master's son taught Turner to read. In 1831, Nat Turner was sold to plantation owner and slaveholder Joseph Travis. Turner had started planning the uprising that was to take place on July 4, but fell ill, and it had to be postponed. A bloody rebellion One week later, on August 21, the rebellion erupted. Some of the slaves were on horseback, so they could run down anyone trying to escape the murderous rampage.

The aftermath What followed was a reign of terror against all blacks in Virginia. While in jail, Nat Turner dictated a confession to his attorney, Thomas R. The Cultural Significance of Solomon Northup’s Twelve Years a Slave | US History Scene. Drugged and beaten, Solomon Northup was illegally kidnapped from his hometown in Saratoga Springs in upstate New York and taken to Washington, D.C. in 1841.

He woke up in the slave pen where he was sadistically remade from a black free man in the North into a slave in the South. Questioning his fate, Northup asked, “could it be possible that I was thousands of miles from home—that I had been chained and beaten without mercy—that I was even herded with a drove of slaves, a slave myself? ((Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave (1853), (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1970), 77)) Detailing his transformation into “chattel” property, Northup recollected that the slave trader, “would make us hold up our heads, walk briskly back and forth, while customers would feel our hands and arms and bodies, turn us about, ask us what we could do, make us open our mouths and show our teeth, precisely as a jockey examines a horse which he is about to barter for or purchase.”

Web Inquiry Projects - For Richer or For Poorer: The California Gold Rush. For Richer or For Poorer: The California Gold Rush Hook | Questions | Procedures | Data Investigation | Analysis | Findings | New Questions Student Page Kelly Beitz Amy Allen Torey Davis Hook The student page contains the hook only. It's been a long day at school and you're exhausted. Who do you see? Take a look at this PowerPoint presentation to get you thinking about the big decision of joining the Gold Rush. Questions Students might ask similar but different questions than those listed here. The Web Inquiry Project described below asks students to take on the role of historian, exploring the life of the miners and history of California in the era of the Gold Rush.

Who were the gold miners? Procedures After students have asked questions related to the topic, they will need to decide a number of things, including: Type(s) of data needed to answer the questions Defining important terms Choosing tools for data manipulation Defining how data will be manipulated and presented Type(s) of Data 1. 2. 3. CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH Native American Indian History in California Largest Natural Gold Nuggets Photos Kumeyaay Gold Coins. The great CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 1848-1855 is historically paramount to Native American Indian history in California — it was estimated that some 300,000 immigrants poured into California during this seven-year period effectively tripling California's population.

It's been estimated that some $10 BILLION (2002 dollars) in gold was mined from California tribal lands between 1849 and 1862. When James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California, on January 24th, 1848, it was estimated there were some 150,000 Indigenous Native American Indians living in California. In 1848, Indians in California outnumbered whites by 10 to one — can you imagine that — walking out of your house today and hiking to your favorite park or beach in an 1848 California countryside? It is believed the Kumeyaay (Tipay-Iipay-Diegueño) Indians — one of the largest and strongest pre-contact tribal groups in California — had only 1,000 surviving tribal members at the turn of the 20th century (1900).

United_States_1848-02-1848-05.png (PNG Image, 1000 × 677 pixels) Aa_polk_wilmot_1_e.jpg (JPEG Image, 580 × 1063 pixels) - Scaled (94%) Treaty_of_Guadalupe_Hidalgo.jpg (JPEG Image, 600 × 940 pixels) 92785-004-2B1B59F6.jpg (JPEG Image, 550 × 384 pixels) 51790021-H.jpeg (JPEG Image, 1389 × 454 pixels) - Scaled (73%) The U.S.-Mexican War . Biographies . Captian John C. Frémont. John C. Frémont Captian John C.

Frémont John C. Frémont, one of the United States’ leading western explorers in the 1830s and 1840s, was born in Savannah, Georgia in 1813. He joined the U.S. Topographical Engineers in 1838 and earned a national reputation for his reports on the American West. Whether by accident or design, Frémont soon plunged into local political intrigue. Frémont then declared himself military governor of the conquered province. After the U.S-Mexican War, Frémont served as U.S. senator from California and, in 1856, became the first Republican candidate for president of the United States.

Thoreau1a.jpg (JPEG Image, 200 × 237 pixels) Civil Disobedience Excerpts. The Biglow papers : Lowell, James Russell, 1819-1891. The Biglow papers. Aa00282_0001.jpg (JPEG Image, 663 × 1024 pixels) - Scaled (97%) The U.S.-Mexican War . Biographies . General Zachary Taylor. The Treaty of Annexation - Texas; April 12, 1844. The Treaty of Annexation - Texas; April 12, 1844 A Treaty of Annexation, concluded between the United States of America and the Republic of Texas. The people of Texas having, at the time of adopting their constitution, expressed by an almost unanimous vote, their desire to be incorporated into the Union of the United States, and being still desirous of the same with equal unanimity, in order to provide more effectually for their security and prosperity; and the United States, actuated solely by the desire to add to their own security and prosperity, and to meet the wishes of the Government and people of Texas, have determined to accomplish, by treaty, objects so important to their mutual and permanent welfare: For that purpose, the President of the United States has given full Powers to John C.

Calhoun, Secretary of State of the said United States, and the President of the Republic of Texas has appointed, with like powers, Isaac Van Zandt and J. [Seal] J C. Note: 00009845.jpg (JPEG Image, 450 × 146 pixels) Oregon_boundary_dispute_map.PNG (PNG Image, 606 × 599 pixels) Treaty of Oregon. The United States and Great Britain signed the Treaty of Oregon on June 15, 1846, ending 28 years of joint occupancy of the Pacific Northwest. The treaty established the 49th parallel as the border between the two countries. The United States and Great Britain ended the War of 1812 with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, and four years later agreed to a 10-year period of joint occupancy of the Northwest. The joint-occupancy agreement was renewed twice, but by 1846 it was clear that the Northwest was rapidly becoming American, primarily as the result of westward migration on the Oregon Trail, and neither country wanted to fight another war over the border issue.

Some members of Congress wanted the northern United States border established at the southern extent of Russian Alaska, at 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude. The Oregon Territory, 1846 - 1830–1860. The Oregon Territory, 1846 Along with territorial disputes with Spain and Mexico over the Southwest, the fate of the Oregon Territory was one of the major diplomatic issues of the first half of the 19th century. Landscape in Oregon Country (Charles Marion Russell) The territory became a focus of those who believed that it was the United States’ obligation and right to extend its rule and liberties across the North American continent.

The Oregon Territory stretched from the Pacific coast to the Rocky Mountains, encompassing the area including present-day Oregon, Washington, and most of British Columbia. Originally Spain, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States claimed the territory. John Jacob Astor As early as 1818 British and American Commissioners had fixed the border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel from the Lake of the Woods (Minnesota Territory) west to the Rocky Mountains.