Altered Neuronal Response During Rapid Auditory Processing and Its Relation to Phonological Processing in Prereading Children at Familial Risk for Dyslexia. Skip to Main Content Sign In Register Advanced Search Online ISSN 1460-2199 Print ISSN 1047-3211 Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press Connect Resources Explore Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Auditory-Motor Processing of Speech Sounds. Skip to Main Content Sign In Register Advanced Search Online ISSN 1460-2199 Print ISSN 1047-3211 Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press Connect Resources Explore Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Auditory Selective Attention to Speech Modulates Activity in the Visual Word Form Area.
+ Author Affiliations Address correspondence to Bruce D. McCandliss, PhD, Box 552, 230 Appleton Place, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203-5721, USA. Email: email@example.com. Abstract Selective attention to speech versus nonspeech signals in complex auditory input could produce top-down modulation of cortical regions previously linked to perception of spoken, and even visual, words. To isolate such top-down attentional effects, we contrasted 2 equally challenging active listening tasks, performed on the same complex auditory stimuli (words overlaid with a series of 3 tones).
Introduction Speech perception often occurs in a densely cluttered, rapidly changing acoustic environment, where multiple sounds vie for attention. Many investigations have focused on manipulations of bottom-up stimulus properties in order to dissociate cortical areas critical for the processing of speech versus well-controlled nonspeech sounds (e.g., Binder et al. 2000). Methods Participants Tones. Brain Activation during Sentence Comprehension among Good and Poor Readers. + Author Affiliations Address correspondence to Ann Meyler, PhD, Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract This study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor reading ability by using fMRI to examine brain activation during a visual sentence comprehension task among good and poor readers in the third (n = 32) and fifth (n = 35) grades. Reading ability, age, and the combination of both factors made unique contributions to cortical activation.
You can change your cookie settings at any time. Skip to Main Content Sign In Register Advanced Search Online ISSN 1460-2199 Print ISSN 1047-3211 Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press Connect Resources Explore Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Interaction of Working Memory and Long-Term Memory in the Medial Temporal Lobe. + Author Affiliations Address correspondence to Dr Nikolai Axmacher, Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, D-53105 Bonn, Germany.
Email: email@example.com. Abstract Recent findings indicate that regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) do not only play a crucial role in long-term memory (LTM) encoding, but contribute to working memory (WM) as well. However, very few studies investigated the interaction between these processes so far. In a new functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm comprising both a complex WM task and an LTM recognition task, we found not only that some items were successfully processed in WM but later forgotten, but also that a significant number of items which were not successfully processed in the WM task were subsequently recognized. Introduction Materials and Methods Subjects Thirty healthy subjects (19 women; mean age ± SD: 30.0 ± 10.4 years) participated in the study.
Experimental Paradigm Figure 1. Figure 2. Multisensory Visual–Auditory Object Recognition in Humans: a High-density Electrical Mapping Study. + Author Affiliations Abstract Multisensory object-recognition processes were investigated by examining the combined influence of visual and auditory inputs upon object identification — in this case, pictures and vocalizations of animals. Behaviorally, subjects were significantly faster and more accurate at identifying targets when the picture and vocalization were matched (i.e. from the same animal), than when the target was represented in only one sensory modality. This behavioral enhancement was accompanied by a modulation of the evoked potential in the latency range and general topographic region of the visual evoked N1 component, which is associated with early feature processing in the ventral visual stream.
High-density topographic mapping and dipole modeling of this multisensory effect were consistent with generators in lateral occipito-temporal cortices, suggesting that auditory inputs were modulating processing in regions of the lateral occipital cortices. Introduction Subjects. Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30. Participants All experimental procedures were approved by the Northwestern University Institutional Review Board. Seventy-six normal hearing children and adults (<20 dB HL pure tone thresholds at octave frequencies from 125 to 8000 Hz) between the ages of 3–30 years participated in this study and were grouped by age: preschoolers (3–5 years old, N = 21), school-aged children (7–13 years old, N = 26), and adults (18–30 years old, N = 29).
Although all adults were tested on the neurophysiological paradigm, only 17 of the 29 adults (10 musicians) received the full cognitive assessment. Participants and, in the case of minors, legal guardians provided informed consent and assent. Subjects within each age group were further categorized as musicians (Mus) or nonmusicians (NonMus).
Cognitive Testing Working Memory We tested auditory working memory (AWM) in school-aged children and adults using the AWM subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson III Test of Cognitive Abilities (Woodcock et al. 2001). Stimuli. Parietal Functional Connectivity in Numerical Cognition. + Author Affiliations Address correspondence to Joonkoo Park, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, B104 Levine Science Research Center, Duke University, Box 90999, Durham, NC 27708, USA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The parietal cortex is central to numerical cognition. Introduction The parietal cortex plays a central role in the representation and processing of numbers. While number processing tasks, in general, activate bilateral parietal cortex, recent studies are beginning to suggest that there are interesting distinctions between the left and the right parietal regions.
When tasks require more precise representation and processing of number, such as exact arithmetic tasks, or symbolic comparison tasks, the left parietal cortex is engaged in addition to the right parietal cortex (Dehaene et al. 1996; Chochon et al. 1999; Pinel et al. 2001). Materials and Methods Participants Twenty-seven healthy adults (ages 18–29 with mean of 23.0; 10 males) participated in this fMRI study. Notes. Reading and Subcortical Auditory Function. Abstract Although it is largely agreed that phonological processing deficits are a major cause of poor reading, the neural origins of phonological processing are not well understood.
We now show, for the first time, that phonological decoding, measured with a test of single-nonword reading, is significantly correlated with the timing of subcortical auditory processing and also, to a lesser extent, with the robustness of subcortical representation of the harmonic content of speech, but not with pitch encoding. The relationships we observe between reading and subcortical processing fall along a continuum, with poor readers at one end and good readers at the other. These data suggest that reading skill may depend on the integrity of subcortical auditory mechanisms and are consistent with the idea that subcortical representation of the acoustic features of speech may play a role in normal reading as well as in the development of reading disorders. Introduction Materials and Methods Table 1. Silence Is Golden: Transient Neural Deactivation in the Prefrontal Cortex during Attentive Reading.
These studies mainly focused on reading sub-skills, and it remains debated whether such dysfunction is apparent during more ecologically valid reading skills, such as reading fluency. In this fMRI study, reading fluency was systematically varied to characterize neural correlates of reading fluency in 30 children with (RD) and without (typical developing children, TYP) a RD. Sentences were presented at constrained, comfortable, and accelerated speeds, which were determined based on individual reading speed.
Visual Word Recognition in the Left and Right Hemispheres: Anatomical and Functional Correlates of Peripheral Alexias. + Author Affiliations Address correspondence to Laurent Cohen, MD, PhD, Service de Neurologie 1, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, 47/83 Bd de l’Hôpital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France. Email: email@example.com. Abstract According to a simple anatomical and functional model of word reading, letters displayed in one hemifield are first analysed through a cascade of contralateral retinotopic areas, which compute increasingly abstract representations.
Eventually, an invariant representation of letter identities is created in the visual word form area (VWFA), reproducibly located within the left occipito-temporal sulcus. The VWFA then projects to structures involved in phonological or lexico-semantic processing. This model yields detailed predictions on the reading impairments that may follow left occipitotemporal lesions. Introduction The acquisition of literacy over years of education rests on the development of elaborate links between vision and language.
Figure 1. Figure 2. Subjects.