Averroes. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad bin ʾAḥmad bin Rušd (Arabic: أبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد), commonly known as Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ابن رشد) or by his Latinized name Averroës (/əˈvɛroʊ.iːz/; April 14, 1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Al-Andalus Muslim polymath, a master of Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics and Andalusian classical music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy, geography, mathematics, physics and celestial mechanics.
Averroes was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus, present-day Spain, and died in Marrakesh, present-day Morocco. He was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba. The 13th-century philosophical movement based on Averroes' work is called Averroism. Averroes was a defender of Aristotelian philosophy against Ash'ari theologians led by Al-Ghazali. Name Biography Averroes was the preeminent philosopher in the history of Al-Andalus.
Alan Watts. Watts gained a large following in the San Francisco Bay Area while working as a volunteer programmer at KPFA, a Pacifica Radio station in Berkeley.
Watts wrote more than 25 books and articles on subjects important to Eastern and Western religion, introducing the then-burgeoning youth culture to The Way of Zen (1957), one of the first bestselling books on Buddhism. Top 30 Free iTunes U Philosophy Courses. There is no simple way to define philosophy.
While people seem to identify the concept as a set of guiding principles for living life or conducting particular actions, philosophy can mean a lot more. At its very core, it is about asking questions and seeking answers about ourselves and our relation to our surroundings. It attempts to ask and answer questions about the nature of existence and reality (metaphysics), the nature of knowledge (epistemology), how one ought to act (ethics), how one should reason (logic), politics, and other related fields.
This article lists 30 great iTunes U courses on philosophy – from introductory courses that will make you familiar with the central issues in philosophy and the most important philosophers and works to the examination of complex subjects such as death, religion, love, to the application of philosophy in everyday life. We hope you find it helpful and stimulating! Philosophy for Beginners 1. 2. An excellent course by Dr. 3. 4. 8 Great Philosophical Questions That We'll Never Solve. This article reads embarrassingly like something I might have written when I was taking philosophy courses in college, and hence makes me take an instant dislike to it.
But I had enough credits to walk out as a philosophy major, so here we go: 1) There is nothing inherently unanswerable about this question. There's even some limited scientific evidence that something is more parsimonious than nothing. Sure, we can ask, "Well why is that true? " but again- once we admit that the question can be approached in a structured fashion, we're drifting away from areas where philosophers can work safe and secure from the dangers of empirical analysis. 2) Again, this is actually a question that has important implications for computer scientists. 3) The problem of free will is a problem of definition, not of answering the question. 4) No. 5) Is there life during life?
6) No. 7) Philosophy works to formalize ethical systems. 8) Platonists are probably the worst thing to happen to philosophy, ever. Pascal's Wager. Blaise Pascal Pascal's Wager is an argument in apologetic philosophy which was devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician, and physicist Blaise Pascal (1623–1662).
It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or does not exist. Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss (some pleasures, luxury, etc.). Pascal formulated the wager within a Christian framework. The wager Stoicism. Stoics were concerned with the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom, and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called prohairesis) that is in accord with nature.
Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how that person behaved. Later Stoics—such as Seneca and Epictetus—emphasized that, because "virtue is sufficient for happiness", a sage was immune to misfortune. This belief is similar to the meaning of the phrase "stoic calm", though the phrase does not include the "radical ethical" Stoic views that only a sage can be considered truly free, and that all moral corruptions are equally vicious.
Michel Foucault. 1.
Biographical Sketch Foucault was born in Poitiers, France, on October 15, 1926. His student years seem to have been psychologically tormented but were intellectually brilliant. He became academically established during the 1960s, when he held a series of positions at French universities, before his election in 1969 to the ultra-prestigious Collège de France, where he was Professor of the History of Systems of Thought until his death. From the 1970s on, Foucault was very active politically. It can be difficult to think of Foucault as a philosopher. 2. Rhetoric. Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetorics. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments. The word is derived from the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical", from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker", related to ῥῆμα (rhêma), "that which is said or spoken, word, saying", and ultimately derived from the verb ἐρῶ (erō), "say, speak". Uses of rhetoric Scope of rhetoric Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times.
Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Desiderius Erasmus. Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (27 October 1466 – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian.
Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. Amongst humanists, he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists"; he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. Discourse. Hermann von Helmholtz. Socrates. 1.
Socrates's strangeness Standards of beauty are different in different eras, and in Socrates's time beauty could easily be measured by the standard of the gods, stately, proportionate sculptures of whom had been adorning the Athenian acropolis since about the time Socrates reached the age of thirty. Good looks and proper bearing were important to a man's political prospects, for beauty and goodness were linked in the popular imagination. The extant sources agree that Socrates was profoundly ugly, resembling a satyr more than a man—and resembling not at all the statues that turned up later in ancient times and now grace Internet sites and the covers of books.