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Averroes. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad bin ʾAḥmad bin Rušd (Arabic: أبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد‎), commonly known as Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ابن رشد‎) or by his Latinized name Averroës (/əˈvɛroʊ.iːz/; April 14, 1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Al-Andalus Muslim polymath, a master of Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics and Andalusian classical music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy, geography, mathematics, physics and celestial mechanics.


Averroes was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus, present-day Spain, and died in Marrakesh, present-day Morocco. He was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba.[6] The 13th-century philosophical movement based on Averroes' work is called Averroism. Averroes was a defender of Aristotelian philosophy against Ash'ari theologians led by Al-Ghazali. Name[edit] Biography[edit] Averroes was the preeminent philosopher in the history of Al-Andalus.

Alan Watts. Top 30 Free iTunes U Philosophy Courses. There is no simple way to define philosophy.

Top 30 Free iTunes U Philosophy Courses

While people seem to identify the concept as a set of guiding principles for living life or conducting particular actions, philosophy can mean a lot more. At its very core, it is about asking questions and seeking answers about ourselves and our relation to our surroundings. It attempts to ask and answer questions about the nature of existence and reality (metaphysics), the nature of knowledge (epistemology), how one ought to act (ethics), how one should reason (logic), politics, and other related fields. This article lists 30 great iTunes U courses on philosophy – from introductory courses that will make you familiar with the central issues in philosophy and the most important philosophers and works to the examination of complex subjects such as death, religion, love, to the application of philosophy in everyday life.

We hope you find it helpful and stimulating! Philosophy for Beginners 1. 2. An excellent course by Dr. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 8 Great Philosophical Questions That We'll Never Solve. Pascal's Wager. Blaise Pascal Pascal's Wager is an argument in apologetic philosophy which was devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician, and physicist Blaise Pascal (1623–1662).

Pascal's Wager

It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or does not exist. Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss (some pleasures, luxury, etc.).[1] Pascal formulated the wager within a Christian framework. The wager[edit] Stoicism. Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC.


The Stoics taught that emotions resulted in errors of judgment which were destructive, due to the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom, and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called prohairesis) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life (lex devina), and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how that person behaved.[1] To live a good life, one had to understand the rules of the natural order since they taught that everything was rooted in nature.[2] In the Renaissance there was Neostoicism, that is a syncretic philosophical movement, joining Stoicism and Christianity, influenced by Justus Lipsius.

The early 21st century witnesses another reincarnation of Stoicism, namely the modern Stoicism movement. Silva Rhetoricae: The Forest of Rhetoric.


Michel Foucault. 1.

Michel Foucault

Biographical Sketch Foucault was born in Poitiers, France, on October 15, 1926. His student years seem to have been psychologically tormented but were intellectually brilliant. He became academically established during the 1960s, when he held a series of positions at French universities, before his election in 1969 to the ultra-prestigious Collège de France, where he was Professor of the History of Systems of Thought until his death. From the 1970s on, Foucault was very active politically.

It can be difficult to think of Foucault as a philosopher. 2. Rhetoric. Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetorics. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments.[4] The word is derived from the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical",[5] from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker",[6] related to ῥῆμα (rhêma), "that which is said or spoken, word, saying",[7] and ultimately derived from the verb ἐρῶ (erō), "say, speak".[8] Uses of rhetoric[edit] Scope of rhetoric[edit]

Desiderius Erasmus. Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (27 October[1] 1466 – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian.

Desiderius Erasmus

Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. Amongst humanists, he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists"; he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists".[2] Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation.

Discourse. Hermann von Helmholtz. Socrates.