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You are so grossly misinformed about question 1 that I'm kind of embarrassed for you. The anthropic principle is a small part of the literature. Actually, why did you write this? I'd put Parfit's paper, "Why Anything?" out there as a good first take.
Blaise Pascal Pascal's Wager (also known as Pascal's Gamble ) is an argument in apologetic philosophy which was devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher , mathematician , and physicist , Blaise Pascal . It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or does not exist . Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss (some pleasures, luxury, etc.). [ 1 ] Pascal formulated the wager within a Christian framework.
Zeno of Citium Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage , or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions. [ 1 ] Stoics were concerned with the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom , and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called prohairesis ) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how he behaved. [ 2 ]
First published Wed Apr 2, 2003; substantive revision Wed Sep 17, 2008 Michel Foucault (1926–1984) was a French historian and philosopher, associated with the structuralist and post-structuralist movements. He has had wide influence not only (or even primarily) in philosophy but also in a wide range of humanistic and social scientific disciplines. 1. Biographical Sketch
Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetorics Rhetoric is the art of discourse , an art that aims to improve the facility of speakers or writers who attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. [ 1 ] As a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the Western tradition. [ 2 ] Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion." [ 3 ] Rhetorics typically provide heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos , pathos , and ethos .
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (27 October [ 1 ] 1466 – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus of Rotterdam , or simply Erasmus , was a Dutch Renaissance humanist , Catholic priest , social critic , teacher , and theologian . Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. He was an early proponent of religious toleration , and enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists"; he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". [ 2 ] Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation .
Discourse (Latin: discursus , “running to and fro”) is the term that describes written and spoken communications ; its denotations include: [ 1 ] In semantics and discourse analysis : A generalization of the concept of conversation within all modalities and contexts. The totality of codified language (vocabulary) used in a given field of intellectual enquiry and of social practice, such as legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse, et cetera. [ 2 ] In the work of Michel Foucault , and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes “an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements ( énoncés )”. [ 3 ]
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science. In physiology and psychology , he is known for his mathematics of the eye , theories of vision , ideas on the visual perception of space, color vision research, and on the sensation of tone, perception of sound, and empiricism . In physics , he is known for his theories on the conservation of energy , work in electrodynamics , chemical thermodynamics , and on a mechanical foundation of thermodynamics .
First published Fri Sep 16, 2005; substantive revision Sat Nov 7, 2009 The philosopher Socrates remains, as he was in his lifetime (469–399 B.C.E.), [ 1 ] an enigma, an inscrutable individual who, despite having written nothing, is considered one of the handful of philosophers who forever changed how philosophy itself was to be conceived. All our information about him is second-hand and most of it vigorously disputed, but his trial and death at the hands of the Athenian democracy is nevertheless the founding myth of the academic discipline of philosophy, and his influence has been felt far beyond philosophy itself, and in every age.