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01.6. Horizontes Cósmicos - Velocidades

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File:Comet-Hale-Bopp-29-03-1997 hires adj.jpg. Tornado. A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that spins while in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.


They are often referred to as twisters, whirlwinds or cyclones,[1] although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel originating from the base of a huge storm cloud, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a basal cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (180 km/h), are about 250 feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating.

The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (480 km/h), are more than two miles (3 km) in diameter, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km).[2][3][4] Untitled. Synapse. In the nervous system, a synapse[1] is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.


Some authors generalize this concept to include the communication from a neuron to any other cell type,[2] although such non-neuronal contacts may be referred to as junctions (a historically older term). Santiago Ramón y Cajal proposed that neurons are not continuous throughout the body, yet still communicate with each other, an idea known as the neuron doctrine.[3] Chemical or electrical[edit] Speed of sound. The speed of sound in an ideal gas is independent of frequency, but does vary slightly with frequency in a real gas.

Speed of sound

It is proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature, but is independent of pressure or density for a given ideal gas. The speed of sound in air varies slightly with pressure only because air is not quite an ideal gas. File:FA-18 Hornet breaking sound barrier (7 July 1999) - filtered.jpg. Moon. The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters.


It is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earth's sky after the Sun, as measured by illuminance on Earth's surface. Its surface is actually dark (although it can appear a very bright white) with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in the sky and its regular cycle of phases have made the Moon an important cultural influence since ancient times on language, calendars, art, and mythology.

The Moon's gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and the slight lengthening of the day. Name and etymology Formation. Untitled. Star. For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star's interior and then radiates into outer space. Once the hydrogen in the core of a star is nearly exhausted, almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stellar nucleosynthesis during the star's lifetime and, for some stars, by supernova nucleosynthesis when it explodes. Near the end of its life, a star can also contain degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age, metallicity (chemical composition), and many other properties of a star by observing its motion through space, luminosity, and spectrum respectively. The total mass of a star is the principal determinant of its evolution and eventual fate.

Other characteristics of a star, including diameter and temperature, change over its life, while the star's environment affects its rotation and movement. Observation history Designations Age. File:The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg. Mars. On 28 September 2015, NASA announced the presence of briny flowing salt water on the Martian surface.[21] It is theorized by some scientists that life on Earth may have begun on Mars and was ferried to Earth via a Martian derived asteroid, due to the lack of certain adequate conditions present on Earth when life is believed to have evolved. [27] Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring.


Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91,[7] which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers (190 mi) across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth's atmosphere.[34] Physical characteristics Animation (00:40) showing major features Internal structure Surface geology. 2MarsOrbit-MarsEarth. 433 Eros. 433 Eros is an S-type near-Earth asteroid approximately 34.4×11.2×11.2 kilometres (21.4×7.0×7.0 mi) in size, the second-largest near-Earth asteroid after 1036 Ganymed.

433 Eros

It was discovered in 1898 and was the first near-Earth asteroid discovered. It was the first asteroid orbited by an Earth probe (in 2000). It belongs to the Amor group. The NEAR Shoemaker probe visited Eros twice, first with a 1998 flyby, and then by orbiting it in 2000 when it extensively photographed its surface. On February 12, 2001, at the end of its mission, it landed on the asteroid's surface using its maneuvering jets. History[edit] Ficheiro:433eros.jpg. Orbital speed. The orbital speed at any position in the orbit can be computed from the distance to the central body at that position, and the specific orbital energy, which is independent of position: the kinetic energy is the total energy minus the potential energy.

Orbital speed

Radial trajectories[edit] In the case of radial motion:[citation needed] File:Full Sunburst over Earth.JPG. Helios (spacecraft) Helios-A and Helios-B (also known as Helios 1 and Helios 2), are a pair of probes launched into heliocentric orbit for the purpose of studying solar processes.

Helios (spacecraft)

A joint venture of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and NASA, the probes were launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on Dec. 10, 1974, and Jan. 15, 1976, respectively. Ficheiro:Titan 3E Centaur with Helios 1.jpg. Star. Ficheiro:Achernar.jpg. Sol. Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.


O Sol (do latim sol, solis[12] ) é a estrela central do Sistema Solar. Todos os outros corpos do Sistema Solar, como planetas, planetas anões, asteroides, cometas e poeira, bem como todos os satélites associados a estes corpos, giram ao seu redor. Responsável por 99,86% da massa do Sistema Solar, o Sol possui uma massa 332 900 vezes maior que a da Terra, e um volume 1 300 000 vezes maior que o do nosso planeta.[13] File:Sun in orbit around Galactic Centre.gif. Via Láctea possui velocidade de rotação de 240 km/s. Sistema Solar leva 200 milhões de ano para dar uma volta completa (Fonte da imagem: NAOJ) Uma equipe de astrônomos liderada pelo professor Mareki Honma, no Observatório Nacional Astronômico do Japão (NAOJ), determinou com mais precisão algumas medidas referentes à nossa galáxia.

Via Láctea possui velocidade de rotação de 240 km/s

Usando radiotelescópios bastante avançados, os novos cálculos garantem que a Via Láctea tem mais matéria escura do que imaginávamos. De acordo com o press release liberado pela organização, as novas descobertas dizem que a distância do Sol até o centro da galáxia é de 26,1 mil anos-luz. Milky Way. Stars and gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center orbit at approximately 220 kilometers per second. The constant rotation speed contradicts the laws of Keplerian dynamics and suggests that much of the mass of the Milky Way does not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation.

This mass has been given the name "dark matter".[32] The rotational period is about 240 million years at the position of the Sun.[15] The Milky Way as a whole is moving at a velocity of approximately 600 km per second with respect to extragalactic frames of reference. The oldest stars in the Milky Way are nearly as old as the Universe itself and thus must have formed shortly after the Big Bang.[9] The Milky Way has several satellite galaxies and is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which is a component of the Virgo Supercluster, which is itself a component of the Laniakea Supercluster.[33][34] Appearance[edit] Size and mass[edit]

Untitled. Solar wind. History[edit] The existence of a continuous stream of particles flowing outward from the Sun was first suggested by British astronomer Richard C. Carrington. File:Structure of the magnetosphere mod PT.png. Velocidade da luz. De onde vem a energia vital que anima os seres na Terra?

Oi amigo, Nota; Desculpe se repito alguns links que talvez já lhe tenha passado anteriormente, mas faço isso como força de expressão e também em respeito e consideração ao público que visita este espaço YR Ok? Bom…, Estamos nesse novo século iniciando o descobrimento de que o universo possui um papel muito mais complexo do que jamais poderia se esperar no tocante à vida. Nessa nova era a ciência começa a perceber de que tudo o que se pensou até agora sobre vida talvez tenha que ser reformulado.