Concepts

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Power (physics) Work (physics) Wave. In physics, a wave is a disturbance or oscillation that travels through space and matter, accompanied by a transfer of energy.

Wave

Wave motion transfers energy from one point to another, often with no permanent displacement of the particles of the medium—that is, with little or no associated mass transport. They consist, instead, of oscillations or vibrations around almost fixed locations. Waves are described by a wave equation which sets out how the disturbance proceeds over time. Harmonic oscillator. Conservation law. In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves.

Conservation law

One particularly important physical result concerning laws of conservation is Noether's theorem, which states that there is a one-to-one correspondence between laws of conservation and differentiable symmetries of physical systems. For example, the conservation of energy follows from the time-invariance of physical systems, and the fact that physical systems behave the same regardless of how they are oriented in space gives rise to the conservation of angular momentum. Exact laws[edit] A partial listing of physical laws of conservation that are said to be exact laws, or more precisely have never been [proven to be] violated: Conservation of mass-energy Approximate laws[edit] There are also approximate conservation laws.

See also[edit] References[edit] Victor J. Torque. Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot.

Torque

Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance vector and the force vector, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. Angular momentum. This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum.

Angular momentum

Energy. All of the many forms of energy are convertible to other kinds of energy, and obey the conservation of energy.

Energy

Common energy forms include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the radiant energy carried by light, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field,(gravitational, electric or magnetic) elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, chemical energy released when a fuel burns, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. According to mass–energy equivalence, any object that has mass when stationary,(called rest mass) also has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy. Conversely, any additional energy above the rest energy will increase an object's mass. Force. The original form of Newton's second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time.

Force

If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. As a formula, this is expressed as: where the arrows imply a vector quantity possessing both magnitude and direction. Development of the concept With modern insights into quantum mechanics and technology that can accelerate particles close to the speed of light, particle physics has devised a Standard Model to describe forces between particles smaller than atoms.

Pre-Newtonian concepts Aristotle famously described a force as anything that causes an object to undergo "unnatural motion" Aristotelian physics began facing criticism in Medieval science, first by John Philoponus in the 6th century. where. Momentum. Like velocity, linear momentum is a vector quantity, possessing a direction as well as a magnitude by its own weight Linear momentum is also a conserved quantity, meaning that if a closed system is not affected by external forces, its total linear momentum cannot change.

Momentum

In classical mechanics, conservation of linear momentum is implied by Newton's laws; but it also holds in special relativity (with a modified formula) and, with appropriate definitions, a (generalized) linear momentum conservation law holds in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and general relativity. Newtonian mechanics[edit] Momentum has a direction as well as magnitude. Quantities that have both a magnitude and a direction are known as vector quantities. Single particle[edit] Mass. In physics, mass (from Greek μᾶζα "barley cake, lump [of dough]") is a property of a physical body which determines the body's resistance to being accelerated by a force and the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction with other bodies.

Mass

The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). As mass is difficult to measure directly, usually balances or scales are used to measure the weight of an object, and the weight is used to calculate the object's mass. For everyday objects and energies well-described by Newtonian physics, mass describes the amount of matter in an object. However, at very high speeds or for subatomic particles, special relativity shows that energy is an additional source of mass. Thus, any stationary body having mass has an equivalent amount of energy, and all forms of energy resist acceleration by a force and have gravitational attraction. There are several distinct phenomena which can be used to measure mass. Acceleration. For example, an object such as a car that starts from standstill, then travels in a straight line at increasing speed, is accelerating in the direction of travel.

Acceleration

If the car changes direction at constant speedometer reading, there is strictly speaking an acceleration although it is often not so described; passengers in the car will experience a force pushing them back into their seats in linear acceleration, and a sideways force on changing direction. If the speed of the car decreases, it is sometimes called deceleration; mathematically it is simply acceleration in the opposite direction to that of motion.[4] Definition and properties[edit] Velocity. If there is a change in speed, direction, or both, then the object has a changing velocity and is said to be undergoing an acceleration.

Velocity

Constant velocity vs acceleration[edit] To have a constant velocity, an object must have a constant speed in a constant direction. Constant direction constrains the object to motion in a straight path (the object's path does not curve). Length. In geometric measurements, length is the longest dimension of an object.[1] In the International System of Quantities, length is any quantity with dimension distance. In other contexts "length" is the measured dimension of an object. For example it is possible to cut a length of a wire which is shorter than wire thickness. Length may be distinguished from height, which is vertical extent, and width or breadth, which are the distance from side to side, measuring across the object at right angles to the length. Motion (physics) If the position of a body is not changing with the time with respect to a given frame of reference the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-invariant) position.

An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described by Newton's first law. Momentum is a quantity which is used for measuring motion of an object. An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in a closed system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of conservation of momentum. The study of motion deals with (1) The study of motion of solids (mechanics). (2) study of motion of fluids (fluid mechanics) As there is no absolute frame of reference, absolute motion cannot be determined.[2] Thus, everything in the universe can be considered to be moving.[3]:20–21 Classical mechanics is fundamentally based on Newton's Laws of Motion. Time. The flow of sand in an hourglass can be used to keep track of elapsed time.

It also concretely represents the present as being between the past and the future. Time is a dimension in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future,[1][2][3][4][5][6] and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them.[3][7][8] Time has long been a major subject of study in religion, philosophy, and science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all fields without circularity has consistently eluded scholars.[3][7][8][9][10][11] Nevertheless, diverse fields such as business, industry, sports, the sciences, and the performing arts all incorporate some notion of time into their respective measuring systems.[12][13][14] Some simple, relatively uncontroversial definitions of time include "time is what clocks measure"[7][15] and "time is what keeps everything from happening at once".[16][17][18][19] Temporal measurement and history[edit] World time[edit]

Space. A right-handed three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system used to indicate positions in space. (See diagram description for needed correction.) In the 19th and 20th centuries mathematicians began to examine non-Euclidean geometries, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat. According to Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, space around gravitational fields deviates from Euclidean space.[4] Experimental tests of general relativity have confirmed that non-Euclidean space provides a better model for the shape of space. Newton's law of universal gravitation. Newton's law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

(Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Isaac Newton called induction.[2] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"), first published on 5 July 1687. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society, Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below.)

Dimension. The first four spatial dimensions. In mathematics[edit] Density. Where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume,[2] although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight.