Temperature A map of global long term monthly average surface air temperatures in Mollweide projection.
In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, often taken to be a measure of disorder, or a measure of progressing towards thermodynamic equilibrium. The entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermodynamic equilibrium, which is the state of maximum entropy.
Acceleration For example, an object such as a car that starts from standstill, then travels in a straight line at increasing speed, is accelerating in the direction of travel.
Velocity If there is a change in speed, direction, or both, then the object has a changing velocity and is said to be undergoing an acceleration.
Momentum Like velocity, linear momentum is a vector quantity, possessing a direction as well as a magnitude:
The original form of Newton's second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. As a formula, this is expressed as: Force
Potential From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Matter is a poorly defined term in science (see definitions below).
Potential energy is energy stored by virtue of the position of an object in a force field, such as a gravitational, electric or magnetic field. For example, lifting an object against gravity performs work on the object and stores gravitational potential energy; if it falls, gravity does work on the object which transforms the potential energy to kinetic energy associated with its speed. Some specific forms of energy include elastic energy due to the stretching or deformation of solid objects, chemical energy such as is released when a fuel burns, and thermal energy, the microscopic kinetic and potential energies of the disordered motions of the particles making up matter.
Electric charge Electric charge is a physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter.
In physics, mass (from Greek μᾶζα "barley cake, lump [of dough]") is a property of a physical body which determines the body's resistance to being accelerated by a force and the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction with other bodies. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). Mass
The flow of sand in an hourglass can be used to keep track of elapsed time.
In geometric measurements, length is the longest dimension of an object. In other contexts "length" is the measured dimension of an object. For example it is possible to cut a length of a wire which is shorter than wire thickness. Length may be distinguished from height, which is vertical extent, and width or breadth, which are the distance from side to side, measuring across the object at right angles to the length. Length
In the 19th and 20th centuries mathematicians began to examine non-Euclidean geometries, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat.