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Gender Inequality

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Separatespheres. Defining Women’s Oppression: The Burka vs. the Bikini - Sociological Images. The cartoon added below inspired me to revive this post from 2008.

Defining Women’s Oppression: The Burka vs. the Bikini - Sociological Images

Many believe that the U.S. is at the pinnacle of social and political evolution. One of the consequences of this belief is the tendency to define whatever holds in the U.S. as ideal and, insofar as other countries deviate from that, define them as problematic. For example, many believe that women in the U.S. are the most liberated in the world. Insofar as women in other societies live differently, they are assumed to be oppressed. Of course, women are oppressed elsewhere, but it is a mistake to assume that “they” are oppressed and “we” are liberated. (If you’re interested, I have a paper showing how Americans make these arguments called Defining Gendered Oppression in U.S.

I offer these thoughts are a preface to a postcard from PostSecret. Cartoonist Malcolm Evans drew a similarly compelling illustration of this point, sent along by David B. Four Waves of Feminism. This piece was originally published in the Fall 2008 issue of Pacific magazine.

Four Waves of Feminism

Martha Rampton is a professor of history and director of the Center for Gender Equity at Pacific University. Her specialty is the early medieval period with an emphasis on social history and the activities and roles of women. She holds an MA in medieval history from the University of Utah and a doctorate in medieval history from the University of Virginia. It is common to speak of three phases of modern feminism; however, there is little consensus as to how to characterize these three waves or what to do with women's movements before the late nineteenth century. Making the landscape even harder to navigate, a new silhouette is emerging on the horizon and taking the shape of a fourth wave of feminism.

Some thinkers have sought to locate the roots of feminism in ancient Greece with Sappho (d. c. 570 BCE), or the medieval world with Hildegard of Bingen (d. 1179) or Christine de Pisan (d. 1434). North Carolina to Limit Bathroom Use by Birth Gender. Photo North Carolina legislators, in a whirlwind special session on Wednesday, passed a wide-ranging bill barring transgender people from bathrooms and locker rooms that do not match the gender on their birth certificates.

North Carolina to Limit Bathroom Use by Birth Gender

Republicans unanimously supported the bill, while in the Senate, Democrats walked out in protest. “This is a direct affront to equality, civil rights and local autonomy,” the Senate Democratic leader, Dan Blue, said in a statement. North Carolina’s governor, Pat McCrory, a Republican, signed the bill late Wednesday night. The session, which was abruptly convened by Republican lawmakers on Tuesday, came in response to an antidiscrimination ordinance approved by the state’s largest city, Charlotte, last month. Whether to allow transgender people access to bathrooms based on gender identity has touched off a national debate, and actions in recent weeks had appeared to turn in favor of that access. Chapter%2015%20 %20Gender%20inequality%20 %20Norton%20August. Women sue to block New York's 'Tampon Tax' - Mar. 3, 2016. Margo Seibert, Jennifer Moore, Catherine O'Neil, Natalie Brasington, and Taja-Nia Henderson, filed a lawsuit Thursday against New York's tax department and its commissioner, Jerry Boone.

Women sue to block New York's 'Tampon Tax' - Mar. 3, 2016

Their demand: Stop imposing a 4% "luxury tax" on feminine hygiene products. The complaint points to guidelines published by the taxation department in 1998 and 2014 that categorize pads and tampons as "general merchandise. " That means they're not eligible for a "medical supplies" tax exemption. Related: 'Pink tax' angers women from New York to London "There can be only one explanation for the Department's decision to tax tampons and pads but not Rogaine, dandruff shampoo, foot powder, chapstick, and so many other less medically necessary products also used by men... It further argues that tampons and sanitary pads indisputably "serve multiple medical purposes. The document also points out that the Federal Food and Drug Administration categorizes feminine hygiene products as "medical devices. " 4 'Reverse Racism' Myths That Need To Stop. Jessica Shortall: The US needs paid family leave.

Michael Kimmel: Why gender equality is good for everyone — men included. Stand Together. Historical Context for Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. Late Eighteenth-Century Britain and the Regency Period Jane Austen’s brief life and writing career overlapped with one of the most transformative eras in British history, marked by revolution abroad and unrest at home.

Historical Context for Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen

The signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the year after Austen’s birth, signaled the start of the American Revolution, followed in the next decade by the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789. For the next two decades, Britain was engaged almost without cease in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars of 1793–1815, one of the most significant conflicts in British history. Among the effects of England’s foreign wars during this period were great financial instability and monetary volatility. Maternity leave in U.S vs. the rest of the world. 3 Foreign Women Visited The U.S. To Assess Gender Equality. They Were Horrified.