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Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258

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House of Wisdom. This article is about the medieval Abbasid Library, Baghdad.

House of Wisdom

For the ancient Fatimid university see Dar al-Hikmah. Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad 1237 The House of Wisdom (Arabic: بيت الحكمة‎; Bayt al-Hikma) was a library, translation institute and academy established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq.[1] It is considered to have been a major intellectual hub during the Islamic Golden Age. The House of Wisdom was founded by Caliph Harun al-Rashid (reigned 786 - 809) and culminated under his son al-Ma'mun (reigned 813 - 833) who is credited with its formal institution. During the reign of al-Ma'mun, astronomical observatories were set up, and the House was an unrivaled center for the study of humanities and for science in medieval Islam, including mathematics, astronomy, medicine, alchemy and chemistry, zoology and geography and cartography.

History[edit] Foundation and origins[edit] Islamic Golden Age. Causes[edit] With a new, easier writing system and the introduction of paper, information was democratized to the extent that, probably for the first time in history, it became possible to make a living from simply writing and selling books.[4] The use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century CE, arriving in Spain (and then the rest of Europe) in the 10th century CE.

Islamic Golden Age

It was easier to manufacture than parchment, less likely to crack than papyrus, and could absorb ink, making it difficult to erase and ideal for keeping records. Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries.[5] It was from these countries that the rest of the world learned to make paper from linen.[6] Philosophy[edit] Ibn Rushd and Ibn Sina played a major role in saving the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian and Muslim worlds. Abbasid Caliphate. The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة العباسية‎ / ALA-LC: al-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyyah), was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Prophet Muhammad.

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid dynasty descended from the Prophet's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE). They ruled as caliphs from their capital in Baghdad, in modern Iraq, after taking over authority of the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centered their government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, north of the Persian capital city of Ctesiphon. The choice of a capital so close to Persia proper reflects a growing reliance on Persian bureaucrats, most notably of the Barmakid family, to govern the territories conquered by Arab Muslims, as well as an increasing inclusion of non-Arab Muslims in the ummah. Rise[edit] Coin of the Abbasids, Baghdad, Iraq, 765. Power[edit] These fissures in their support led to immediate problems.

Islamic Golden Age[edit] Harun al-Rashid. Harun al-Rashid ( Arabic : هارون الرشيد ‎}; Hārūn ar-Rashīd ; English: Aaron the Upright, Aaron the Just , or Aaron the Rightly Guided ) (17 March 763 or February 766 – 24 March 809) was the fifth Arab Abbasid Caliph .

Harun al-Rashid

His rule encompassed modern Iraq . His actual birth date is debated, and various sources give dates from 763 to 766. He ruled from 786 to 809, and his time was marked by scientific , cultural and religious prosperity. Art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom"). [ 1 ] Since Harun was intellectually, politically and militarily resourceful, his life and the court over which he held sway have been the subject of many tales: some are claimed to be factual but most are believed to be fictitious. The family of Barmakids which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate declined gradually during his rule. His Life [ edit ] Hārūn was born in Rey . Anecdotes [ edit ] O. Siege of Baghdad (1258) Hulagu had begun his campaign in Iran with several offensives against Nizari groups, including the Assassins, whose stronghold of Alamut his forces seized.

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

He then marched on Baghdad, demanding that Al-Musta'sim accede to the terms imposed by Möngke on the Abbasids. Although the Abbasids had failed to prepare for the invasion, the Caliph believed that Baghdad could not fall to invading forces and refused to surrender. Hulagu subsequently besieged the city, which surrendered after 12 days. The Great Caliphs: The Golden Age of the 'Abbasid Empire - Amira K. Bennison. Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. White Banners: Contention in 'Abbasid Syria, 750-880 - Paul M. Cobb.