19th Cen. Ideas
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Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield , KG , PC , FRS , (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British Prime Minister , parliamentarian, Conservative statesman and literary figure. He served in government in four decades, twice as Prime Minister of Great Britain. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party after the Corn Laws schism of 1846. Although he was a major figure in the protectionist wing of the Conservative Party after 1844, Disraeli's relations with other major figures in the party, particularly Lord Derby , the party leader, were often strained. From the 1860s, however, Disraeli's relationship with Derby improved and he became Derby's successor as the leader of the Conservatives. Disraeli's career from 1852 onwards was also marked by an intense rivalry with William Ewart Gladstone , who eventually rose to become leader of the Liberal Party .
Sybil, or The Two Nations is an 1845 novel by Benjamin Disraeli . Published in the same year as Friedrich Engels 's The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 , Sybil traces the plight of the working classes of England. Disraeli was interested in dealing with the horrific conditions in which the majority of England's working classes lived — or, what is generally called the Condition of England question . The book is a roman à thèse , or a novel with a thesis — which was meant to create a furor over the squalor that was plaguing England's working class cities.
Revolutions of 1848
The Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes was a 19th Century English political movement and organization. It was founded on 14 December 1863 by Marquis Townshend who was one of the few aristocrats to support the reform movement. It was made up of Radicals and trade union representatives. It was chaired by John Bedford Leno and its vice-presidents included Edmond Beales , J.A. Nicholay and Captain E.
The Corn Laws were trade laws designed to protect cereal producers in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland against competition from less expensive foreign imports between 1815 and 1846. [ 1 ] More simply, to ensure that British landowners reaped all the financial profits from farming, the corn laws (which imposed steep import duties) made it too expensive for anyone to import grain from other countries, even when the people of Great Britain and Ireland needed the food (as in times of famine). The laws were introduced by the Importation Act 1815 (55 Geo. 3 c. 26) and repealed by the Importation Act 1846 (9 & 10 Vict. c. 22). These laws are often considered as examples of British mercantilism . [ 2 ] The economic issue, in essence, was food prices; the price of grain was central to the price of the most important food staple, bread, and the working man spent much of his wages on bread.
Coordinates : The Peterloo Massacre (or Battle of Peterloo ) occurred at St Peter's Field, Manchester , England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 that had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation. The end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 had resulted in periods of famine and chronic unemployment , exacerbated by the introduction of the first of the Corn Laws .
The European Potato Failure was a food crisis caused by potato blight that struck Northern Europe in the mid-1840s. The time is also known as the Hungry Forties . While the crisis produced excess mortality and suffering across the affected areas, particularly harshly affected were the Scottish Highlands and Ireland . Many people starved due to lack of access to other staple food sources. The effect of the crisis on Ireland is incomparable to all other places, causing 1 million deaths and a million refugees , and spurring a century-long population decline.
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