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Prelim Core 1: Better Health for Individuals

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No fruit juice and enough sleep Society The Guardian. Alcohol culture change: the first signs? Over the last fortnight it’s been interesting to read the reporting about the release of a couple of key pieces of alcohol data in Australia.

Alcohol culture change: the first signs?

The Australian Bureau of Statistics released its Apparent Consumption of Alcohol, Australia, 2012-13 report, which shows Australians are drinking less alcohol overall than any time in the previous 15 years. The report shows: 9.9 litres of pure alcohol was available for consumption in 2012-13 for every person in Australia aged 15 years and over. This is 1.6% less than the amount in 2011-12 (10.0 litres) and 8.2% less than 2007-08 (10.8 litres).As a standard drink consists of 12.5mls of pure alcohol, this is equivalent to an average of 2.2 standard drinks per day per person aged 15 years and over.The data also showed a downward trend in beer as the preferred drink – beer 40.9%, wine 37.4%, spirits 13.1%, ready to drinks 6.6% and cider 2%.

ACWP Final Report 2016 Short. Indigenous Learnign Factors 2014. Indigenous health. Leading causes of death. Leading underlying causes of death by sex Coronary heart disease is the leading underlying cause of death in Australia, followed by dementia and Alzheimer disease, and cerebrovascular diseases (which includes stroke).

Leading causes of death

Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) make up the top 5 leading underlying causes of death in Australia in 2013, for males and females of all ages combined. Figure 1 below shows the number of male and female deaths contributing to the top 5 causes. The Elderly - HSC PDHPE. The elderly refers to people over the age of 65.

The Elderly - HSC PDHPE

Australia’s population is aging (increased percentage of elderly Australians) and it is important to understand the health of elderly Australians and the determinants of their health if it is going to be addressed adequately. Chronic diseases and level of independence are of particular importance for the elderly. The nature and extent of the health inequities The elderly are most affected by chronic disease, with 78% of the elderly suffering from either: asthma, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, COPD, depression or hypertension.

Answering extended response questions. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples - HSC PDHPE. The nature and extent of the health inequities ATSI peoples experience the largest gap in health outcomes in Australia.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples - HSC PDHPE

They currently have a life expectancy 10 years lower than other Australians. Though this life expectancy is on the increase, the gap does not seem to be shrinking. Australia’s Health 2014. Indigenous Australians. 21% fewer Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people died from an avoidable cause between 2001 and 2010.

Indigenous Australians

Read more on causes of death at the Indigenous Observatory 2x as many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants are born of low birthweight as non-Indigenous infants. Smoking and its effects on the breathing system. There are about 1200 million (1.2 x 106) smokers worldwide and 15 billion cigarettes are bought every day!

Smoking and its effects on the breathing system

Each cigarette contains tobacco leaves which are burned, and the smoker draws the smoke from the burning leaves down through their breathing system into their lungs. Tobacco smoke contains a cocktail of more than 7000 chemicals. This cocktail contains the addictive drug nicotine, which makes people feel relaxed and calm. It is this drug which can make it very hard for people to give up smoking, even when they know the damage it can cause.

The health warnings on UK cigarette packets are very clear but there are still around 100,000 deaths from smoking-related diseases every year. How Does Smoking Affect Your Breathing?