The feedback continuum. The effects of feedback are more complex than we often realise.
While expertise and mastery is unlikely to develop without feedback it’s certainly not true to say that giving feedback results in expertise and mastery. There are few teachers who do not prioritise giving feedback and yet not all teachers’ feedback is equally effective. My understanding of the effects of feedback has grown as I’ve come to accept and internalise the profound differences between ‘performance’ and ‘learning’.
If you’re not clear on these, I’ve summarised them here. Hattie and Timperley point out that, “Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative.” It’s interesting to consider the view from cognitive psychology. This might seem on first reading to contradict your lived experience. In the past I’ve used the analogy of navigation to explain this. Feedback: let’s build it in, not add it on. Image: @jasonramasami The quantity of feedback our students need after completing a task is largely dictated by the quality of teaching they have received before and during this task.
I would argue that much of the best and most useful feedback our students receive happens as they are working, not necessarily after they have finished working. Let me explain. Last week, I was off sick for three days in a row, the longest illness I have had in nine years of teaching. (Don’t ask – it wasn’t pleasant!) Two stars and a bloody wish! A heap of epithets is poor praise: the praise lies in the facts, and in the way of telling them.Jean de La Bruyère We are held hostage by our superstitious belief in the mystical power of marking to cure all educational ills.
It won’t. A teacher inscribing marks in students’ exercise books is every bit as mundane as it sounds; in my 15 years in the classroom it rarely resulted in much. But that’s not really why we mark. We mark because it’s the right thing to do. Recently I’ve been working with a school to help them rethink their marking policy. Is praise counter productive? I had an interesting discussion with Tim Taylor this morning.
He said, “At best, praising effort has a neutral or no effect when students are successful, but is likely to be negative when students are not successful.” But what could possibly be wrong with praise? Surely praise is one of the most fundamental way to motivate pupils? Teachers are, generally, keen to praise pupils, and pupils , generally, welcome and expect it. Www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el201209_ChappuisOnlineFigure.pdf. Educational Leadership:Feedback for Learning:"How Am I Doing?" One day when our daughter Claire was in 3rd grade, she brought home a math paper with a -3, a smiley face, and an M at the top.
After we looked at it together, I asked, "What do you think this means you know? " She looked puzzled and said "Math. " When I asked, "What do you think this means you need to learn? " she looked more puzzled and said, "Math? " Claire had no idea what the marks on her paper said about herself as a learner of mathematics. We know that feedback plays a crucial role in bringing about learning gains. Giving Feedback - The Art of Coaching Teachers. UserID: iCustID:
From The Brilliant Report: How To Give Good Feedback. Monday, March 18, 2013 When effectively administered, feedback is a powerful way to build knowledge and skills, increase motivation, and develop reflective habits of mind in students and employees.
Too often, however, the feedback we give (and get) is ineffectual or even counterproductive. Here, four ways to offer feedback that really makes a difference, drawn from research in psychology and cognitive science: 1. Supply information about what the learner is doing, rather than simply praise or criticism. 2. 5 Research-Based Tips for Providing Students with Meaningful Feedback. In recent years, research has confirmed what most teachers already knew: providing students with meaningful feedback can greatly enhance learning and improve student achievement.
Professor James Pennebaker from the University of Texas at Austin has been researching the benefits of frequent testing and the feedback it leads to. He explains that in the history of the study of learning, the role of feedback has always been central. When people are trying to learn new skills, they must get some information that tells them whether or not they are doing the right thing. Learning in the classroom is no exception. Both the mastery of content and, more importantly, the mastery of how to think require trial-and-error learning. The downside, of course, is that not all feedback is equally effective, and it can even be counterproductive, especially if it's presented in a solely negative or corrective way.
An ASCD Study Guide for How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students. By Susan M.
Brookhart This ASCD Study Guide is designed to enhance your understanding and application of the information contained in How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students, an ASCD book written by Susan M. Brookhart and published in September 2008. You can use the study guide before or after you have read the book, or as you finish each chapter. The study questions provided are not meant to cover all aspects of the book, but, rather, to address specific ideas that might warrant further reflection. Express 6.10 - Tips for New Teachers: Goodbye to "Good Job!"—The Power of Specific Feedback.
Margaret Berry Wilson Your principal has come to your classroom to observe a lesson.
At the end of the lesson, she smiles, says "Good job! ," and leaves. After a moment's satisfaction, you begin wondering what she meant. Was your pacing effective? Now suppose the principal had added specific feedback to her general praise: "You used positive language many more times than when I last observed you. Students, as well as adults, often feel frustrated by general praise. 7 Key Characteristics Of Better Learning Feedback.
20 Ways To Provide Effective Feedback For Learning - Understanding Learning Feedback For Better Teaching. 20 Ways To Provide Effective Feedback For Learning - Teacher Evaluation: What's Fair? What's Effective?:The Potential of Peer Review. November 2012 | Volume 70 | Number 3 Teacher Evaluation: What's Fair? What's Effective? Pages 20-25 Susan Moore Johnson and Sarah E. Fiarman Does peer review have the potential to be used widely and to improve teacher evaluation? Learning from Seven Districts Fortunately, years of experience with Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) in a small number of districts across the United States offer guidance.
After consulting teachers have spent several months providing concentrated, individualized help to each teacher, they evaluate whether that teacher meets the district's performance standards. PAR provides teachers with expert advice for improvement and, if that effort fails, a clear path to dismissal. At the Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, we studied seven PAR programs1 in 2007–08 (Johnson & Papay, 2010; Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, 2009). Most consulting teachers in these districts reported finding their work challenging and rewarding. Select Stars References Endnote. 20 Useful Web Design Feedback Solutions. Designers create designs which will be used by lots of people, so to measure how well a content page performs with users, they need to get an outside perspective to spot issues and validate design choices.
One of the most critical parts of a project is getting critiques and advice on how to improve designs. Thanks to the web’s ability to connect us to people from all over the world, getting feedback for a web design has never been easier. Online annotation tools for collaboration and getting feedback for web design and development projects. They are very useful for commenting, review and debugging with client and as well as with the team members. There’s always a feedback stage in the web design process which requires intensive interaction. Improve Feedback with Voice Comments in Google Docs.
As a former teacher of writing, I understand (and greatly value) the importance of feedback in the writing process. With the emphasis that the Common Core Standards place on students using evidence from sources and engaging in rich and rigorous evidence-based conversations about text, we, as educators, need to find more ways to provide frequent, meaningful feedback to students as they gain increasing independence in writing tasks. Despite the vast availability of technology to produce works of writing electronically, the method of providing feedback still remains quite similar – written comments that the student must read and interpret to make necessary adjustments.
For Google Docs users, the process of reviewing student work and leaving feedback is relatively simple, yet it still requires written comments, which can be limiting based on space and time constraints. Feedback for Learning:Seven Keys to Effective Feedback. Types of Feedback and Their Purposes. Improve Feedback with Voice Comments in Google Docs. On Feedback. My article on feedback is the lead article in this month’s Educational Leadership.
13 Concrete Examples Of Better Feedback For Learning. By Grant Wiggins. Feedback for Learning:Seven Keys to Effective Feedback.