The feedback continuum. The effects of feedback are more complex than we often realise. While expertise and mastery is unlikely to develop without feedback it’s certainly not true to say that giving feedback results in expertise and mastery. There are few teachers who do not prioritise giving feedback and yet not all teachers’ feedback is equally effective. My understanding of the effects of feedback has grown as I’ve come to accept and internalise the profound differences between ‘performance’ and ‘learning’.
If you’re not clear on these, I’ve summarised them here. Hattie and Timperley point out that, “Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative.” We know from Kluger & DeNisi’s meta analysis that in 38% of the most robust studies they were able to find, giving feedback had a negative impact on outcomes. So what goes wrong? It’s interesting to consider the view from cognitive psychology. Like this: Like Loading... Feedback: let’s build it in, not add it on.
Image: @jasonramasami The quantity of feedback our students need after completing a task is largely dictated by the quality of teaching they have received before and during this task. I would argue that much of the best and most useful feedback our students receive happens as they are working, not necessarily after they have finished working. Let me explain. Last week, I was off sick for three days in a row, the longest illness I have had in nine years of teaching. (Don’t ask – it wasn’t pleasant!) It meant that my year 11 students had to plan and write a full piece of iGCSE English language coursework without my help or guidance. This episode has got me thinking about feedback and its role as an in-built part of teaching. Feedback – both from and to the students – informs almost every decision teachers make, whether we are planning or delivering lessons. 1) During initial planning. 3) At a whole-class level. 4) In between lessons.
Are the two mutually exclusive? Feedback. Related posts: Two stars and a bloody wish! A heap of epithets is poor praise: the praise lies in the facts, and in the way of telling them.Jean de La Bruyère We are held hostage by our superstitious belief in the mystical power of marking to cure all educational ills. It won’t. A teacher inscribing marks in students’ exercise books is every bit as mundane as it sounds; in my 15 years in the classroom it rarely resulted in much. But that’s not really why we mark. We mark because it’s the right thing to do. Because not marking is worse than marking. This is the marking fetish. Recently I’ve been working with a school to help them rethink their marking policy.
Here’s an example from an obviously hard working and committed teacher: Take a look at the stars: “Excellent effort to copy descriptions” and “Correctly identified”. The Action, though, seems useful: “Why are these symbols important?” The same problems are in evidence with other marking policies which expect teachers to respond to students’ work with a set formula. Like this: Is praise counter productive? I had an interesting discussion with Tim Taylor this morning. He said, “At best, praising effort has a neutral or no effect when students are successful, but is likely to be negative when students are not successful.” But what could possibly be wrong with praise? Surely praise is one of the most fundamental way to motivate pupils? Teachers are, generally, keen to praise pupils, and pupils , generally, welcome and expect it.
We use praise to reward or change pupils’ behaviour, and to that extent it may well be effective. But could this praise also be diluting learning and effort? Various research seems to indicate that contrary to popular belief, praise does not help students learn. But although there are some who cast aspersions on the concept of engagement, we all want our pupils to make greater effort, don’t we? When students were praised for effort, 90 percent of them wanted challenging new tasks they could learn from. ” This is pretty clear, isn’t it?
What are we to make of that? Www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el201209_ChappuisOnlineFigure.pdf. Educational Leadership:Feedback for Learning:"How Am I Doing?" Giving Feedback - The Art of Coaching Teachers. UserID: iCustID: IsLogged: false IsSiteLicense: false UserType: anonymous DisplayName: TrialsLeft: 0 Trials: Tier Preview Log: Exception pages ( /teachers/coaching_teachers/2013/03/giving_feedback.html ) = NO Internal request ( 184.108.40.206 ) = NO Open House ( 2015-07-21 10:14:06 ) = NO Personal SL : ( EMPTY ) = NO Site Licence : ( 220.127.116.11 ) = NO ACL Free A vs U ( 2100 vs 0 ) = NO Token Free (NO TOKEN FOUND) = NO Blog authoring preview = NO Search Robot ( Firefox ) = NO Purchased ( 0 ) = NO Monthly ( 064b17c3-fe68-c7f4-0f97-a92af89a854c : 1 / 1 ) = NO 0: /edweek/the_startup_blog/2015/07/beyond_reading_fiction_expanding_what_our_students_read.html Can add to monthly ( /teachers/coaching_teachers/2013/03/giving_feedback.html ) = NO Access denied ( -1 ) = NO Internal request ( 18.104.22.168 ) = NO Site Licence : ( 22.214.171.124 ) = NO Search Robot ( EPE Bot ) = YES Access granted ( 5 ) = YES.
From The Brilliant Report: How To Give Good Feedback. Monday, March 18, 2013 When effectively administered, feedback is a powerful way to build knowledge and skills, increase motivation, and develop reflective habits of mind in students and employees. Too often, however, the feedback we give (and get) is ineffectual or even counterproductive. Here, four ways to offer feedback that really makes a difference, drawn from research in psychology and cognitive science: 1.
Supply information about what the learner is doing, rather than simply praise or criticism. 2. A second risk identified by Deci is that learners will interpret feedback as an attempt to control them—for example, when feedback is phrased as, “This is how you should do it.” According to Deci, a third feedback condition that can reduce learners’ engagement is an uncomfortable sense of competition. 3. Once a goal has been clearly specified, feedback can help learners see the progress they’re making toward that target. 4. 5 Research-Based Tips for Providing Students with Meaningful Feedback. In recent years, research has confirmed what most teachers already knew: providing students with meaningful feedback can greatly enhance learning and improve student achievement. Professor James Pennebaker from the University of Texas at Austin has been researching the benefits of frequent testing and the feedback it leads to.
He explains that in the history of the study of learning, the role of feedback has always been central. When people are trying to learn new skills, they must get some information that tells them whether or not they are doing the right thing. Learning in the classroom is no exception. Both the mastery of content and, more importantly, the mastery of how to think require trial-and-error learning. The downside, of course, is that not all feedback is equally effective, and it can even be counterproductive, especially if it's presented in a solely negative or corrective way. So what exactly are the most effective ways to use feedback in educational settings? 1. 2. 3. 4. An ASCD Study Guide for How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students. By Susan M. Brookhart This ASCD Study Guide is designed to enhance your understanding and application of the information contained in How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students, an ASCD book written by Susan M.
Brookhart and published in September 2008. You can use the study guide before or after you have read the book, or as you finish each chapter. The study questions provided are not meant to cover all aspects of the book, but, rather, to address specific ideas that might warrant further reflection. Most of the questions contained in this study guide are ones you can think about on your own, but you might consider pairing with a colleague or forming a study group with others who have read (or are reading) How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students. Chapter 1: Feedback: An Overview What is the role of feedback in classroom formative assessment? Chapter 2: Types of Feedback and Their Purposes Discuss the timing of feedback in your class(es).
Extending Your Learning. Express 6.10 - Tips for New Teachers: Goodbye to "Good Job!"—The Power of Specific Feedback. Margaret Berry Wilson Your principal has come to your classroom to observe a lesson. At the end of the lesson, she smiles, says "Good job! ," and leaves. After a moment's satisfaction, you begin wondering what she meant. Now suppose the principal had added specific feedback to her general praise: "You used positive language many more times than when I last observed you.
Students, as well as adults, often feel frustrated by general praise. In contrast, when we name specific academic and social behaviors in our feedback, students become more aware of what they're doing well and what they can do to improve. Three Tips for Giving Great Feedback Name only behaviors that have actually occurred. Sample Phrases for Helpful Feedback Here are a few examples of specific feedback for various classroom situations. During transitions "You kept your hands to yourselves and used quiet voices on the way to the library. "I see trash going into trash cans. During group activities During independent work time. 7 Key Characteristics Of Better Learning Feedback.
7 Key Characteristics Of Better Learning Feedback by Grant Wiggins, Authentic Education On May 26, 2015, Grant Wiggins passed away. Grant was tremendously influential on TeachThought’s approach to education, and we were lucky enough for him to contribute his content to our site. Occasionally, we are going to go back and re-share his most memorable posts. Whether or not the feedback is just “there” to be grasped or offered by another person, all the examples highlight seven key characteristics of helpful feedback. Helpful feedback is – Goal-referencedTransparentActionableUser-friendlyTimelyOngoingConsistent 1. Given a desired outcome, feedback is what tells me if I should continue on or change course. Note that goals (and the criteria for them) are often implicit in everyday situations. 2.
Even as little pre-school children, we learn from such results and models without adult intervention. 3. Thus, “good job!” 4. 5. A great problem in education, however, is the opposite. 6. 7. References. 20 Ways To Provide Effective Feedback For Learning - 20 Ways To Provide Effective Feedback For Learning by Laura Reynolds While assessment gets all the press, it is feedback for learning that can transform a student’s learning. When feedback is predominately negative, studies have shown that it can discourage student effort and achievement (Hattie & Timperley, 2007, Dinham). Like my experience, the only thing I knew is that I hated public speaking and I would do anything possible to get out of it. However, it is in the other times that we have to dig deep to find an appropriate feedback response that will not discourage a student’s learning.
A teacher has the distinct responsibility to nurture a student’s learning and to provide feedback in such a manner that the student does not leave the classroom feeling defeated. 1. Providing feedback means giving students an explanation of what they are doing correctly AND incorrectly. Use the concept of a “feedback sandwich” to guide your feedback: Compliment, Correct, Compliment. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Understanding Learning Feedback For Better Teaching | Education. 20 Ways To Provide Effective Feedback For Learning - Teacher Evaluation: What's Fair? What's Effective?:The Potential of Peer Review. November 2012 | Volume 70 | Number 3 Teacher Evaluation: What's Fair?
What's Effective? Pages 20-25 Susan Moore Johnson and Sarah E. Fiarman Does peer review have the potential to be used widely and to improve teacher evaluation? Or is it too problematic to succeed and last? Learning from Seven Districts Fortunately, years of experience with Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) in a small number of districts across the United States offer guidance. After consulting teachers have spent several months providing concentrated, individualized help to each teacher, they evaluate whether that teacher meets the district's performance standards. PAR provides teachers with expert advice for improvement and, if that effort fails, a clear path to dismissal.
At the Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, we studied seven PAR programs1 in 2007–08 (Johnson & Papay, 2010; Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, 2009). Select Stars Establish Clear Guidelines Rely on Teaching Standards and Rubrics Endnote. 20 Useful Web Design Feedback Solutions. Designers create designs which will be used by lots of people, so to measure how well a content page performs with users, they need to get an outside perspective to spot issues and validate design choices. One of the most critical parts of a project is getting critiques and advice on how to improve designs. Thanks to the web’s ability to connect us to people from all over the world, getting feedback for a web design has never been easier.
Online annotation tools for collaboration and getting feedback for web design and development projects. They are very useful for commenting, review and debugging with client and as well as with the team members. There’s always a feedback stage in the web design process which requires intensive interaction. Using these tools will always be very helpful especially if you want people to judge your design.
If you build business websites for clients you should also consider using the WordPress themes available for business sites. Advertisement 1. 2. 3. 4. Improve Feedback with Voice Comments in Google Docs. As a former teacher of writing, I understand (and greatly value) the importance of feedback in the writing process. With the emphasis that the Common Core Standards place on students using evidence from sources and engaging in rich and rigorous evidence-based conversations about text, we, as educators, need to find more ways to provide frequent, meaningful feedback to students as they gain increasing independence in writing tasks.
Despite the vast availability of technology to produce works of writing electronically, the method of providing feedback still remains quite similar – written comments that the student must read and interpret to make necessary adjustments. For Google Docs users, the process of reviewing student work and leaving feedback is relatively simple, yet it still requires written comments, which can be limiting based on space and time constraints. Ideally, we would be able to meet with each student and talk to them as they progress through their work. Interested? 1. Feedback for Learning:Seven Keys to Effective Feedback. Types of Feedback and Their Purposes. Improve Feedback with Voice Comments in Google Docs. On Feedback. My article on feedback is the lead article in this month’s Educational Leadership.
I provide a clear definition of what feedback is and (especially) what it ISN’T. Feedback is not advice (e.g. Use more detail!) , nor is it evaluation (e.g. Good job!) Even though many people write and talk as if it were. This conflation is unfortunate. You can read the article online here. I received a lovely email in reply to the article, and I excerpt it below: As I re-read your article from the perspective of a classroom teacher who has only ever provided ineffective feedback, I was left with the grapple of how to more consistently elevate my feedback. I imagine a few of these bullets surfacing as tangible steps during the “What if We Could Easily Make Time” discussion: As a coach, I am thrilled by the possibility of just one teacher daring to pursue just one of the “what ifs”… What a great follow-up!
PS: A number of people asked for more examples than were in the article. Like this: Like Loading... 13 Concrete Examples Of Better Feedback For Learning. Feedback for Learning:Seven Keys to Effective Feedback.