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The Renaissance ( UK / r ɨ ˈ n eɪ s ən s / , US / ˈ r ɛ n ɨ s ɑː n s / , French pronunciation: [ʁənɛsɑ̃ːs] , from French : Renaissance "re-birth", Italian : Rinascimento , from rinascere "to be reborn") [ 1 ] was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though availability of paper and the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. As a cultural movement, it encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch , the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform.
Second edition; translated by S. G. C.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli ( Italian: [nikkoˈlɔ makjaˈvɛlli] ; 3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance . He was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic , with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He was a founder of modern political science , and more specifically political ethics .
John Calvin ( French : Jean Calvin , born Jehan Cauvin : 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation . He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism .
Protestants Gone Wild in Geneva Tucked into the southwest corner of modern day Switzerland is the small city of Geneva. In the 1530s Geneva had a reputation as a place one could let ones' hair down. The people of Geneva had traditionally been ruled by the Duc de Savoy- a French noble. (It wouldn’t join the Swiss Confederation until 1815). However, in 1530 Geneva enlisted the help of the Swiss Confederation to oust the Duc de Savoy and the local Catholic bishop.
The Huguenots ( / ˈ h juː ɡ ən ɒ t / or / h uː ɡ ə ˈ n oʊ / ; French: [yɡˈno] , [yɡəˈno] ) were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th centuries. French Protestants were inspired by the writings of John Calvin in the 1530s, and they were called Huguenots by the 1560s. By the end of the 17th century and into the 18th century, roughly 500,000 Huguenots had fled France during a series of religious persecutions. They relocated to Protestant nations, such as England , Scotland , Denmark , Switzerland , the Dutch Republic , the Electorate of Brandenburg , Electorate of the Palatinate (both in the Holy Roman Empire), and the Duchy of Prussia , and also to the Dutch Cape Colony in present-day South Africa and the English 13 colonies of North America . [ edit ] Etymology A term used originally in derision, Huguenot has indefinite origins.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition or the Reformed faith ) is a major branch of Western Christianity that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation -era theologians. Calvinists broke with the Roman Catholic church but differed with Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Lord's supper , theories of worship , and the use of God's law for believers , among other things. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Calvinism is a misleading term because the religious tradition it denotes is and has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder.
John Calvin was born in 1509 . He died in 1564 . John Calvin was the son of a lawyer. He was born in Noyon, Picardy and was therefore a Frenchman.
The Holy Roman Empire stands as a concerted endeavor by the Catholic Church and Christian kings to restore in their own image the crumbled remains of the secular achievements of the ancient pagan Roman Empire. The world had been bereft of a Roman Emperor since the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in AD 476. The political connections that still loosely held together the idea of an empire through its fragmentation into an assortment of sovereign and independent states were secondary only to the much stronger bond each of these states held to the powerful Catholic Church.
The Holy Roman Empire ( Latin : Imperium Romanum Sacrum , German : Heiliges Römisches Reich , Italian : Sacro Romano Impero , Czech : Svatá říše římská , Slovene : Sveto rimsko cesarstvo ) was a varying complex of lands [ 1 ] that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe . [ 2 ] It grew out of East Francia , one of the primary divisions of the Frankish Empire . Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period , when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes. In its last centuries, it had become quite close to a union of territories.
Charles V ( Spanish : Carlos I ; Dutch : Karel V ; German : Karl V. ; Italian : Carlo V ; French : Charles Quint ; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I , of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556. Charles was the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad .
The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe , involving most of the countries of Europe . [ 10 ] It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history , and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history. The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. Initially, it was fought largely as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire , although disputes over internal politics and the balance of power within the Empire played a significant part.
The Peace of Augsburg , also called the Augsburg Settlement , [ 1 ] was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League , an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg , now in present-day Bavaria , Germany . It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire . The Peace established the principle Cuius regio, eius religio , which allowed Holy Roman Empire's states' princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the domains they controlled, ultimately reaffirming the independence they had over their states. Subjects, citizens, or residents who did not wish to conform to the prince's choice were given a period in which they were free to emigrate to different regions in which their desired religion had been accepted.
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), [ 1 ] then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the medieval period. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), [ 2 ] feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals , and fiefs . [ 2 ]
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was king of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was lord , and later king , of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty , succeeding his father, Henry VII . Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries , and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England .