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Les territoires dans la mondialisation

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Londres, métropole mondiale

20 000 câbles sous les mers_Arte. Les câbles étendent leur empire sous les mers. La construction d'un porte-conteneurs CMA CGM. Les marines nationales, définitions et redéfinitions de leurs missions dans le monde, après la Guerre froide. « Montre-moi ta mer et je te dirai qui tu es ».

Les marines nationales, définitions et redéfinitions de leurs missions dans le monde, après la Guerre froide

Depuis les disputes juridiques entre le Hollandais Grotius (1583-1645) et l’Anglais Selden (1584-1654) sur le statut des approches littorales – dédiées à la libre-navigation pour le premier et sous la souveraineté des États côtiers pour le second –, la mer incarne le tiraillement entre une vision libérale et une vision réaliste de la scène internationale. Faut-il la considérer comme vecteur d’échanges et de liens ou plutôt comme objet de convoitises et de richesses nationales ? La Convention des Nations unies sur le droit de la mer (CNUDM), signée à Montego Bay en 1982 et entrée en vigueur en 1994 après de longues négociations, symbolise ce tiraillement : elle est un compromis entre les tenants de la libre-navigation et les défenseurs des souverainetés littorales.

Aujourd’hui, les libéraux voient dans les mers et océans le support d’un monde fluide et mondialisé. Les principales flottes militaires source : Flottes de combat 2012 1. 1.1. 2. Présentation générale du dossier. Recent Tanker Hijackings Add to Problems in the South China Sea. Photo KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia — Add another problem to the rising tensions in the South China Sea this year: a mysterious spate of tanker hijackings since late April, as armed bands of men have boarded and commandeered the ships, siphoned their cargos of diesel and gasoline onto barges or other tankers, and fled into the night.

Recent Tanker Hijackings Add to Problems in the South China Sea

Complicating matters is the fact that two of the hijackings took place near the heart of Malaysia’s offshore oil and gas production, in waters where China is making an increasingly forceful claim to sovereignty. Interpol, intelligence agencies and military forces in the region are investigating the eight attacks — the most recent of which was last Friday — and are trying to figure out how to stop further ones, said Noel Choong, the head of the Asia office here of the International Maritime Bureau’s Piracy Reporting Center.

Continue reading the main story In one incident in late May, “they were wearing ninja-type clothes, black, so they looked professional,” Mr. Cmdr. Territorial Disputes in the Waters Near China. 1 East China Sea In November, China claimed airspace that overlapped with standing claims by South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.

Territorial Disputes in the Waters Near China

Related Graphic » 2 Senkaku Islands Controlled by Japan but claimed by China and Taiwan, which call them the Diaoyu Islands, these tiny islands have been a source of dispute for decades. Related Article » 3 Scarborough Shoal Claimed by the Philippines, the reef has been patrolled by Chinese ships since a confrontation in 2012. Related Article » The lure of fisheries and potential petroleum reserves has motivated a patchwork of claims, especially around the Spratly Islands.

Related Article » 5 Confrontation Over Oil Rig China stationed an oil rig near the coast of Vietnam in early May, increasing tensions between the countries. To Bolster Its Claims, China Plants Islands in Disputed Waters. Photo BEIJING — The islands have all that one could ask of a tropical resort destination: white sand, turquoise waters and sea winds.

To Bolster Its Claims, China Plants Islands in Disputed Waters

But they took shape only in the last several months, and they are already emerging as a major point of conflict in the increasingly bitter territorial disputes between China and other Asian nations. China has been moving sand onto reefs and shoals to add several new islands to the Spratly archipelago, in what foreign officials say is a new effort to expand the Chinese footprint in the South China Sea.

The officials say the islands will be able to support large buildings, human habitation and surveillance equipment, including radar. The island-building has alarmed Vietnam, the Philippines and other Southeast Asian nations that also claim sovereignty over the Spratlys. Continue reading the main story Site of new island-building Chinese actions have also worried senior United States officials. “It’s changing the status quo,” said Carlyle A.

OPEN Map Mr. Comment les territoires sont-ils intégrés à la mondialisation ?