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This is a list of unusual deaths . This list includes unique or extremely rare circumstances of death recorded throughout history, noted as being unusual by multiple sources. Some of the deaths are mythological or are considered to be unsubstantiated by contemporary researchers. Some other articles also cover deaths that might be considered unusual or ironic, including List of entertainers who died during a performance , List of inventors killed by their own inventions , List of association footballers who died while playing , List of professional cyclists who died during a race and the List of political self-immolations .
Genie is the pseudonym of a feral child who was the victim of one of the most severe cases of abuse and neglect ever documented. She spent most of her first thirteen years of life locked inside a bedroom, strapped to a child's toilet or bound inside a crib with her arms and legs immobilized. Genie's abuse came to the attention of Los Angeles child welfare authorities on November 4, 1970. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] In the first several years after Genie's life and circumstances came to light, psychologists , linguists and other scientists focused a great deal of attention on Genie's case, seeing in her near-total social isolation an opportunity to study acquisition of language skills and linguistic development.
.onion is a pseudo-top-level domain host suffix (similar in concept to such endings as .bitnet and .uucp used in earlier times) designating an anonymous hidden service reachable via the Tor network. Such addresses are not actual DNS names, and the .onion TLD is not in the Internet DNS root , but with the appropriate proxy software installed, Internet programs such as Web browsers can access sites with .onion addresses by sending the request through the network of Tor servers. The purpose of using such a system is to make both the information provider and the person accessing the information more difficult to trace, whether by one another, by an intermediate network host, or by an outsider.
In linguistics , grammar is the set of structural rules that governs the composition of clauses , phrases , and words in any given natural language . The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology , syntax , and phonology , often complemented by phonetics , semantics , and pragmatics . Linguists do not normally use the term to refer to orthographical rules, although usage books and style guides that call themselves grammars may also refer to spelling and punctuation . [ citation needed ] [ edit ] Use of the term The term grammar is often used by non-linguists with a very broad meaning. As Jeremy Butterfield puts it: "Grammar is often a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to." [ 1 ] However, linguists use it in a much more specific sense.
Inscribed bamboo slips of The Art of War , unearthed in Yinque Mountain, Linyi, Shandong in 1972, dated back to the 2nd century BC. The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise attributed to Sun Tzu (also referred to as "Sun Wu" and "Sunzi"), [ 1 ] a high-ranking military general, strategist and tactician, and it was believed to have been compiled during the late Spring and Autumn period or early Warring States period . [ 2 ] The text is composed of 13 chapters, each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare . It is commonly known to be the definitive work on military strategy and tactics of its time. It has been the most famous and influential of China's Seven Military Classics , and: "for the last two thousand years it remained the most important military treatise in Asia, where even the common people knew it by name." [ 3 ] It has had an influence on Eastern and Western military thinking, business tactics, legal strategy and beyond.
De Beers is a family of companies that controversially dominate the diamond , diamond mining, diamond hops, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. De Beers is active in every category of industrial diamond mining: open-pit, underground, large-scale alluvial, coastal and deep sea. [ 1 ] Mining takes place in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Canada. The company was founded by Cecil Rhodes , who was financed by Alfred Beit and Rothschild . [ 2 ] In 1927, Ernest Oppenheimer , a German Jewish immigrant to Britain who had earlier founded mining giant Anglo American plc with American financier J.P.
Welcome to the Africa WikiProject . This project covers all articles about people, places, things, and events associated with the African continent, not already covered by WikiProject African diaspora . Our article alerts page is here . [ edit ] Goals and scope Improve Wikipedia's coverage of Africa and maintaining such articles in a fair and accurate manner .
Executive Outcomes was a private military company (PMC) founded in South Africa by former Lieutenant-Colonel of the South African Defence Force Eeben Barlow in 1989. It later became part of the South African-based holding company Strategic Resource Corporation. [ 1 ] Executive Outcomes (EO) provided military personnel, training and logistical support to officially recognized governments only. Where assistance was given to corporations in conflict areas, EO had the host government’s approval to provide such assistance.
Sierra Leone ( i / s ɪ ˈ ɛər ə l ɪ ˈ oʊ n ɪ / or / l ɪ ˈ oʊ n / ), [ 4 ] officially the Republic of Sierra Leone , is a country in West Africa that is bordered by Guinea to the northeast, Liberia to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest. Sierra Leone is a Constitutional Republic with a directly elected president and a Unicameral Legislature .
The Sierra Leone Selection Trust was formed in 1934 following an agreement between the government of Sierra Leone and the Consolidated African Selection Trust Ltd (CAST). CAST was formed in 1924 and was part of a much larger mining finance house Selection Trust Ltd which had been founded in 1913 by Alfred Chester Beatty (an American mining magnate. Although the Oppenheimers ( De Beers ) invested in CAST and its subsidiaries from the 1920s and had boardroom representation, CAST was independent of the Oppenheimer empire. SLST corporation which had exclusive mineral mining rights in Sierra Leone beginning in 1935 was scheduled to last for 99 years.
The Revolutionary United Front ( RUF ) was a rebel army that fought a failed eleven-year war in Sierra Leone , starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. It later developed into a political party , which existed until 2007. The three most senior surviving leaders, Issa Sesay , Morris Kallon and Augustine Gbao , were convicted in February 2009 of war crimes and crimes against humanity. [ 1 ] [ edit ] Creation The Revolutionary United Front initially coalesced as a group of Sierra Leoneans which led National Patriotic Front of Liberia elements across the border in an attempt to replicate Charles Taylor's earlier success in toppling the Liberian government. [ 2 ]
A blood diamond (also called a conflict diamond , converted diamond , hot diamond , or war diamond ) is a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency , invading army's war efforts, or a warlord 's activity. These terms are particularly used in the context of diamond trading to indicate the negative effects for this sale. These diamonds are mined particularly in Africa [ 1 ] where around two-thirds of the world's diamonds are extracted. [ 2 ] The phenomenon of conflict minerals has the same nature. [ edit ] History
The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola ( Portuguese : União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola ) (UNITA) is the second-largest political party in Angola . Founded in 1966, UNITA fought alongside the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the Angolan War for Independence (1961–1975) and then against the MPLA in the ensuing civil war (1975–2002). The war was one of the most prominent Cold War proxy wars , with UNITA receiving military aid from the United States and South Africa while the MPLA received support from the Soviet Union and its allies. [ 1 ] UNITA was led by Jonas Savimbi from its foundation until his death in 2002.
Angola , officially the Republic of Angola ( Portuguese : República de Angola , pronounced: [ʁɨˈpuβlikɐ] or [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ ðj ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ, in Angola: ʁɛˈpublika de an'ɡɔla] ; Kikongo , Kimbundu , Umbundu : Repubilika ya Ngola ), is a country in Southern Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean with Luanda as its capital city. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Portuguese were present in some—mostly coastal—points of the territory of what is now Angola, from the 16th to the 19th century, interacting in diverse ways with the peoples that lived there.