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In social psychology , the fundamental attribution error (also known as correspondence bias or attribution effect ) describes the tendency to overestimate the effect of disposition or personality and underestimate the effect of the situation in explaining social behavior. The fundamental attribution error is most visible when people explain the behavior of others. It does not explain interpretations of one's own behavior—where situational factors are more easily recognized and can thus be taken into consideration. This discrepancy between attributions for one's own behavior and for that of others is known as the actor–observer bias . As a simple example, consider a situation where, Alice, a driver, is about to pass through an intersection. Her light turns green, and so she begins moving forward when a car blows through the red-light and cuts her off.
Hindsight bias , also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism , is the inclination to see events that have already occurred as being more predictable than they were before they took place. [ 1 ] It is a multifaceted phenomenon that can affect different stages of designs, processes, contexts, and situations. [ 2 ] Hindsight bias may cause memory distortion, where the recollection and reconstruction of content can lead to false theoretical outcomes. It has been suggested that the effect can cause extreme methodological problems while trying to analyze, understand, and interpret results in experimental studies. A basic example of the hindsight bias is when, after viewing the outcome of a potentially unforeseeable event, a person believes he or she "knew it all along."
In modern psychology , cognitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions : ideas, beliefs, values or emotional reactions. In a state of dissonance, people may sometimes feel "disequilibrium": frustration, hunger, dread, guilt, anger, embarrassment, anxiety, etc. [ 1 ] The phrase was coined by Leon Festinger in his 1956 book When Prophecy Fails , which chronicled the followers of a UFO cult as reality clashed with their fervent belief in an impending apocalypse. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Festinger subsequently (1957) published a book called A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance in which he outlines the theory. Cognitive dissonance is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.