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Secular humanism

Secular humanism
The philosophy or life stance of secular humanism (alternatively known by some adherents as Humanism, specifically with a capital H to distinguish it from other forms of humanism) embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.[1][2][3][4] The International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) is the world union of more than one hundred Humanist, rationalist, irreligious, atheistic, Bright, secular, Ethical Culture, and freethought organizations in more than 40 countries. The "Happy Human" is the official symbol of the IHEU as well as being regarded as a universally recognised symbol for those who call themselves Humanists. Secular humanist organizations are found in all parts of the world. Those who call themselves humanists are estimated to number between four and five million people worldwide. Terminology[edit] History[edit] Case law[edit]

Related:  philosophy treeKM

'Pataphysics Jarry in Alfortville 'Pataphysics (French: 'pataphysique) is a philosophy or media theory dedicated to studying what lies beyond the realm of metaphysics. The concept was coined by French writer Alfred Jarry (1873–1907), who defined 'pataphysics as "the science of imaginary solutions, which symbolically attributes the properties of objects, described by their virtuality, to their lineaments".[1] A practitioner of 'pataphysics is a pataphysician or a pataphysicist. Definitions[edit] There are over one hundred differing definitions of pataphysics.[2] Some examples are shown below. Secularity - Wikipedia Secularity (adjective form secular,[1] from Latin saecularis meaning "worldly" or "temporal") is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion. For instance, one can regard eating and bathing as examples of secular activities, because there may not be anything inherently religious about them. Nevertheless, some religious traditions see both eating and bathing as sacraments, therefore making them religious activities within those world views.

Science of morality "The Good Samaritan" by François-Léon Sicard. The sculpture is based on a story, and one that would be promoted by science of morality. Nature, habits, culture and norms are all pivotal in this empirical pursuit of harmony among living beings. Science of morality can refer to a number of ethically naturalistic views. In meta-ethics, ethical naturalism bases morality on rational and empirical consideration of the natural world. This position has become increasingly popular among philosophers in the last three decades.[1]

Negative and positive atheism A diagram showing the relationship between the definitions of weak/strong and implicit/explicit atheism. Explicit positive/strong/hard atheists (in purple on the right) assert that "at least one deity exists" is a false statement. Explicit negative/weak/soft atheists (in blue on the right) reject or eschew belief that any deities exist without actually asserting that "at least one deity exists" is a false statement. Implicit negative/weak/soft atheists (in blue on the left) would include people (such as infants and some agnostics) who do not believe in a deity, but have not explicitly rejected such belief. Uncertainty principle where ħ is the reduced Planck constant. The original heuristic argument that such a limit should exist was given by Heisenberg, after whom it is sometimes named the Heisenberg principle. This ascribes the uncertainty in the measurable quantities to the jolt-like disturbance triggered by the act of observation.

Life stance - Wikipedia It connotes an integrated perspective on reality as a whole and how to assign valuations, thus being a concept similar or equivalent to that of a worldview; with the latter word (derived from the German "Weltanschauung") being generally a more common and comprehensive term. Like the term "worldview", the term "life stance" is intended[by whom?] to be a shared label encompassing both religious perspectives (for instance: "a Buddhist life stance" or "a Christian life stance" or "a Pagan life stance"), as well as non-religious spiritual or philosophical alternatives (for instance: "a humanist life stance" or "a personist life stance" or "a Deep Ecology life stance"), without discrimination in favour of any.[2]

Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary ethics is a term referring equally to a form of descriptive ethics or normative ethics. Descriptive evolutionary ethics consists of biological approaches to ethics (morality) based on the role of evolution in shaping human psychology and behavior. Such approaches may be based in scientific fields such as evolutionary psychology, sociobiology, or ethology with a focus on understanding and explaining observed ethical preferences or choices and their origins. History[edit] In the chapter On the Development of the Intellectual and Moral Faculties During Primeval and Civilised Times of The descent of man (1871) Charles Darwin set out to explain the origin of human morality in order to show that there was no absolute gap between man and animals.

Agnostic theism Agnostic theism is the philosophical view that encompasses both theism and agnosticism. An agnostic theist believes in the existence of at least one deity, but regards the basis of this proposition as unknown or inherently unknowable.[1] The agnostic theist may also or alternatively be agnostic regarding the properties of the god(s) they believe in. Views of agnostic theism[edit] Agnostic theism is belief but without knowledge, as shown in purple and blue (see Epistemology). There are numerous beliefs that can be included in agnostic theism, such as fideism, but not all agnostic theists are fideists. Since agnosticism is in the philosophical rather than religious sense a position on knowledge and does not forbid belief in a deity, it is compatible with most theistic positions.