Srinivasa Ramanujan Srinivasa Ramanujan Iyengar FRS (pronunciation: i/sriː.ni.vaː.sə raː.maː.nʊ.dʒən/) (22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions. Ramanujan initially developed his own mathematical research in isolation; it was quickly recognized by Indian mathematicians. When his skills became apparent to the wider mathematical community, centred in Europe at the time, he began a famous partnership with the English mathematician G. H. Early life Ramanujan's home on Sarangapani Street, Kumbakonam Ramanujan was born on 22 December 1887 in Erode, Madras Presidency (now Pallipalayam, Erode, Tamil Nadu), at the residence of his maternal grandparents in a Brahmin family. His father, K. Since Ramanujan's father was at work most of the day, his mother took care of him as a child. is an integer and Mr.
Non-Euclidean geometry Behavior of lines with a common perpendicular in each of the three types of geometry In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry. As Euclidean geometry lies at the intersection of metric geometry and affine geometry, non-Euclidean geometry arises when either the metric requirement is relaxed, or the parallel postulate is set aside. In the latter case one obtains hyperbolic geometry and elliptic geometry, the traditional non-Euclidean geometries. Another way to describe the differences between these geometries is to consider two straight lines indefinitely extended in a two-dimensional plane that are both perpendicular to a third line: History Early history While Euclidean geometry, named after the Greek mathematician Euclid, includes some of the oldest known mathematics, non-Euclidean geometries were not widely accepted as legitimate until the 19th century. Terminology
Jean Giraud 2 Un erratum Michel Langevin, l’un des tapirs de (l’ENS de) Saint-Cloud que j’ai évoqués dans la première partie de cet article, me signale que c’est Fulbert Mignot et non Maurice Mignotte qui fut l’un des autres tapirs. (J’appelle ici « tapir » ce que les normaliens de la rue d’Ulm semblent avoir appelé « caïman », c’est-à-dire un assistant préparateur ; je ne suis d’ailleurs pas certain que ce mot ait été usité à Saint-Cloud, mais c’est celui qui m’est venu.) Cet « incident » a été pour moi l’occasion (agréable) d’avoir de leurs nouvelles... Singularités encore La vie de Jean Giraud dans les années 70 et 80 est en partie liée à la résolution des singularités en caractéristique positive : c’est le cas par exemple de l’histoire de ses rapports avec « les mathématiciens espagnols » ; sans surcharger ce texte d’idées mathématiques, il est inévitable d’en parler un peu. Alexandre Grothendieck, Shreeram Abhyankar et Michael Artin. Heisuke Hironaka L’ENS de Lyon Jean Giraud
The Thirty Greatest Mathematicians Click for a discussion of certain omissions. Please send me e-mail if you believe there's a major flaw in my rankings (or an error in any of the biographies). Obviously the relative ranks of, say Fibonacci and Ramanujan, will never satisfy everyone since the reasons for their "greatness" are different. Following are the top mathematicians in chronological (birth-year) order. Earliest mathematicians Little is known of the earliest mathematics, but the famous Ishango Bone from Early Stone-Age Africa has tally marks suggesting arithmetic. Early Vedic mathematicians The greatest mathematics before the Golden Age of Greece was in India's early Vedic (Hindu) civilization. Top Thales of Miletus (ca 624 - 546 BC) Greek domain Thales was the Chief of the "Seven Sages" of ancient Greece, and has been called the "Father of Science," the "Founder of Abstract Geometry," and the "First Philosopher." Apastambha (ca 630-560 BC) India Pythagoras of Samos (ca 578-505 BC) Greek domain Tiberius(?)
Joseph Louis Lagrange Joseph-Louis Lagrange (born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia  (also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrangia ), 25 January 1736 in Turin, Piedmont; died 10 April 1813 in Paris) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer. He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, and both classical and celestial mechanics. In 1766, on the recommendation of Euler and d'Alembert, Lagrange succeeded Euler as the director of mathematics at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin, Prussia, where he stayed for over twenty years, producing volumes of work and winning several prizes of the French Academy of Sciences. Lagrange's treatise on analytical mechanics (Mécanique Analytique, 4. ed., 2 vols. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils, 1888–89), written in Berlin and first published in 1788, offered the most comprehensive treatment of classical mechanics since Newton and formed a basis for the development of mathematical physics in the nineteenth century.
Eight per thousand History The relations between the Italian State and the religious confessions in its territory can be traced back to the Statuto Albertino of 1848, which applied first to the Kingdom of Sardinia and then to the Kingdom of Italy. Its first article declared the "Roman Catholic Apostolic religion" the only state religion and granted legal toleration to all other religious confessions then present. Under the Lateran treaties of 1929, which were incorporated in the 1948 Constitution of the Italian Republic, the State paid a small monthly salary, called the congrua, to Catholic clergymen as compensation for the nationalization of Church properties at the time of the unification of Italy. Current situation In 2013 there are 12 possibly beneficiaries of the tax: In addition an agreement has been signed with the Jehovah's Witnesses, but it has not yet received parliamentary ratification. Utilisation Choices expressed by taxpayers See also References
Jean Giraud 1 Jean Giraud est décédé le 27 mars 2007, à l’âge de soixante-et-onze ans, des suites d’une insuffisance pulmonaire grave, à l’hôpital de la Croix-Rousse à Lyon où il avait été amené en urgence. Giraud était connu de la communauté mathématique française pour (au moins) trois raisons assez différentes. La plus ancienne est son livre « Non Abelian Cohomology », tiré de sa thèse d’État préparée sous la direction d’Alexandre Grothendieck. Pour toutes ces raisons, et d’autres, Jean Giraud a marqué la mémoire de nombreux mathématiciens. Je ne peux que présenter l’excuse habituelle d’incompétence pour les faiblesses du texte qui va suivre. Une note personnelle : j’ai été un moment l’élève de Giraud ; la relation d’amitié et d’affection qui est venue ensuite en a été marquée et je n’ai jamais réussi (malgré son aide) à le tutoyer ni à l’appeler par son prénom. Famille et premières études JG est né le 2 février 1936 à Lyon cinquième ; puis il a habité à Sathonay-Camp. L’ENS d’Ulm Premier foyer
Leonhard Euler Swiss mathematician, physicist, and engineer Leonhard Euler ( OY-lər; German: [ˈɔʏlɐ] ( Euler was one of the most eminent mathematicians of the 18th century and is held to be one of the greatest in history. He is also widely considered to be the most prolific mathematician of all time. His collected works fill 92 volumes, more than anyone else in the field. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all Life Early years Leonhard Euler was born on 15 April 1707, in Basel, Switzerland, to Paul III Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite née Brucker, a pastor's daughter. Euler's formal education started in Basel, where he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother. Saint Petersburg Around this time Johann Bernoulli's two sons, Daniel and Nicolaus, were working at the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. Euler arrived in Saint Petersburg on 17 May 1727.
Georg Cantor Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (/ˈkæntɔr/ KAN-tor; German: [ˈɡeɔʁk ˈfɛʁdinant ˈluːtvɪç ˈfɪlɪp ˈkantɔʁ]; March 3 [O.S. February 19] 1845 – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician, best known as the inventor of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and well-ordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are "more numerous" than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an "infinity of infinities". He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact of which he was well aware. The harsh criticism has been matched by later accolades. Life Youth and studies Cantor, ca. 1870. Teacher and researcher In 1867, Cantor completed his dissertation, on number theory, at the University of Berlin. ...
Keskkonnaabi Posted on 03/06/2008 by erikpuura Missugune oleks maailmakaart, kui igas riigis oleks elanike tihedus samasugune? Riigi suurus kaardil väljendab selle elanike arvu. Selline kohati väljavenitatud ja kohati kokkupigistatud kaart on täiesti olemas, parajalt naljakas, aga ka mõtlemapanev. Mis veel hakkab eriti silma? Kaardi allikas: Cartography: A popular perspective, Nature 439(800) Filed under: Keskkond, Muud huvitavat, Rahvusvaheline