Asia was settled in multiple waves of migration, DNA study suggests An international team of researchers studying DNA patterns from modern and archaic humans has uncovered new clues about the movement and intermixing of populations more than 40,000 years ago in Asia. Using state-of-the-art genome analysis methods, scientists from Harvard Medical School and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have found that Denisovans -- a recently identified group of archaic humans whose DNA was extracted last year from a finger bone excavated in Siberia -- contributed DNA not just to present-day New Guineans, but also to aboriginal Australian and Philippine populations. The study demonstrates that contrary to the findings of the largest previous genetic studies, modern humans settled Asia in more than one migration. According to David Reich, a professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, "Denisova DNA is like a medical imaging dye that traces a person's blood vessels. Genetic footprints The researchers concluded that:
World Digital Library Home China: Surviving the Camps by Zha Jianying | NYR Daily By now, it has been nearly forty years since the Cultural Revolution officially ended, yet in China, considering the magnitude and significance of the event, it has remained a poorly examined, under-documented subject. Official archives are off-limits. Serious books on the period, whether comprehensive histories, in-depth analyses, or detailed personal memoirs, are remarkably few. Ji Xianlin’s The Cowshed: Memories of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, which has just been released in English for the first time, is something of an anomaly. At the center of the book is the cowshed, the popular term for makeshift detention centers that had sprung up in many Chinese cities at the time. To mentally relive such darkness and to record it all in such an unswervingly candid manner could not have been easy for an elderly man: Ji was over eighty at the time of writing. Reading Ji’s account again, however, has also renewed some of my old questions and frustrations. Ji Xianlin died in 2009.
Ancient China - Ancient Civilizations East Asia also has dry areas. The Gobi Desert is found along the border between Mongolia and China. The Gobi is the 5th largest desert in the world and is also the coldest. Despite the dry and mountainous terrain of East Asia, there are some low plains suitable for early civilization. Heavy summer rains and snowmelt support 2 large river systems in East Asia. East Asia has many different climate types. Early History Humans probably reached East Asia between 30,000 and 50,000 years ago. Ancient China It is difficult to be sure about China’s early ancient history. The Zhou Dynasty (1046 BCE-256 BCE) lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history. Agriculture was usually directed by the government. During the Zhou Dynasty Taoism (also spelled Daoism) and Confucianism developed—the two most important Chinese philosophies. Dynasty. By 475 BCE the provinces/states of the Zhou kingdom were more powerful than the Zhou central government.
Ancestral Lines Evolutionary biologists use a cladogram, the treelike diagram of evolutionary branches or clades, to organize species into lines of evolutionary descent across time. Biologists use three types of evidence to deduce evolutionary connections: genetics, morphology, and geologic dating. (Behavior, normally a key part of evolutionary studies, can only be inferred in extinct species — for example, by examining the ecology in which the species flourished and the species adaptations for eating and locomotion.) Analyses of primate fossils and the genetic relatedness of living primates converge to the conclusion that humans and chimpanzees branched from a common ancestor about 7 million years ago. DNA recovered from several uncontaminated Neanderthalensis fossils indicated that modern humans and extinct neanderthals diverged about 400,000 years ago; but more recent studies show that they must have interbred within Europe or the Middle East since then.
Stunning photos from inside the Women's March in Washington, DC Gloria Steinem greets protesters at the barricades before speaking at the Women's March on Washington.John Minchillo/AP An estimated half a million people joined the Women's March on Washington on a crisp Saturday the day after Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th President of the US. The march aims to bring together women across diverse backgrounds and send a bold message to the new administration that they will not be ignored or have their rights stomped on. People carried signs with calls for gender equality and anti-Trump statements, though the rally's organizers have insisted the demonstration is more pro-women than anti-Trump. These stunning and soon to be iconic photos show what it was like to be there. We'll be updating this post as more photos come in.
East India Company - Once world’s most powerful corporation 2 clicks It was the most powerful multinational corporation the world had ever seen. Founded in 1600, the English East India Company’s power stretched across the globe from Cape Horn to China. The company was established for trading, with a royal charter by Queen Elizabeth I granting it a monopoly over business with Asia. Imagine a company with the influence of Google or Amazon, granted a state-sanctioned monopoly and the right to levy taxes abroad But the Company’s influence went further. Imagine a company with the influence of Google or Amazon, granted a state-sanctioned monopoly and the right to levy taxes abroad – and with MI6 and the army at its disposal. From its establishment by royal charter to its ability to raise armies, the East India Company was a product of its time. “In its financing, structures of governance and business dynamics, the Company was undeniably modern,” writes Nick Robins in his book The Corporation that Changed the World. Acing the interview Unpaid internships Meal ticket
The First Women Warriors on Horseback | HORSE NATION Scythian women were kicking butt and taking names from the 7th century BC to the 2nd century AD. Source: CAIS The Scythians migrated from central Asia to southern Russia, centering over the present day Crimean peninsula, in the 8th and 7th centuries BC. The tribe was artistic, violent, and comprised entirely of excellent horse riders. They were among the earliest people to master horseback riding, a tactical advantage that astonished and overwhelmed their neighbors. Every Scythian had at least one personal mount, but the wealthy owned vast herds. Ancient Worlds reports, “The most perfectly preserved horse found at Pazyryk is a 12-15 year old thoroughbred-type dun mare of about 13 hands high, which would be about average height for Scythian horses. Scythians utilized simple saddles consisting of felt, hair and leather. Source: State Hermitage Museum They also created elaborate head dresses for their horses. But that’s not even the coolest part, folks. Source: Siberian Times Go Riding!
What America’s immigrants looked like when they arrived on Ellis Island We hear so often that America is "a nation of immigrants" or a "cultural mixing pot" that the phrase has become kind of a tired cliche. But actually seeing that history is a different story. The fascinating photographs below -- of people in their native costume passing through Ellis Island in the early 20th Century -- hint at just how incredible and unique America's history is as a nation of immigrants. These photos were taken by Augustus Sherman, an amateur photographer who worked as the chief registry clerk on Ellis Island from 1892 until 1925. New York began using Ellis Island as a way station for immigrants on Jan. 1, 1892, and between then and 1954, more than 12 million immigrants used the island to enter the U.S. The history of the island is not always a happy one: It also reflects deep racism and ethnic divisions. Here is a young German man, who the notes classify as a "stowaway": A German stowaway. Children and women from the Netherlands: Dutch children. Three Dutch women.
Women's March Is The Biggest Protest In US History As An Estimated 2.9 Million March Millions of Americans have taken to the streets from New York to Los Angeles and everywhere in between as the Women’s Marches on Washington is estimated to be the biggest one-day protest in US history. UConn professor Jeremy Pressman is keeping a running total of crowd estimates across the United States in a Google document. An estimated 60,000 people marched in Atlanta. 250,000 are marching in Chicago. There are estimates of 250,000 people in Boston, and 200,000 more in Denver. In New York, the estimate ranges from 200,000-500,000. City officials estimate that 500,000 people participated in the main march in Washington, DC. There were also protests of 60,000 in Oakland, CA, 50,000 in Philadelphia, 100,000 in Madison, WI, 20,000 in Pittsburgh, 20,000 in Nashville, TN, and 60,000 in St. In the history of the United States, there has never been a one-day protest that was this large. 1982’s anti-nuclear march in New York City drew an estimated crowd of 1 million.
The Real Reason America Used Nuclear Weapons Against Japan. It Was Not To End the War Or Save Lives. Like all Americans, I was taught that the U.S. dropped nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in order to end WWII and save both American and Japanese lives. But most of the top American military officials at the time said otherwise. The U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey group, assigned by President Truman to study the air attacks on Japan, produced a report in July of 1946 that concluded (52-56): Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey’s opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945 and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. General (and later president) Dwight Eisenhower – then Supreme Commander of all Allied Forces, and the officer who created most of America’s WWII military plans for Europe and Japan – said:
10 Ways We're All Picturing The Ancient World Incorrectly Thanks to countless books, movies, and trashy TV shows, most of us have a fairly firm mental image of the ancient world. Togas, feasting, gladiatorial combat . . . the standard stuff. Yet step back in time, and you’d be confronted with a world that confounded your expectations. 10Ancient Britain Had African Citizens Although London is one of the most multicultural cities on Earth, it’s only been in the last century or so that minorities have become a familiar sight in Britain. In 2010, researchers at Reading University found evidence that Roman York had been home to individuals of North African descent. This multicultural history didn’t end with the fall of Rome. 9Neanderthals Were Seriously Intelligent “Neanderthal” is a synonym for “idiot,” a reminder that before we became kings of the planet, we first had to wipe out our stupider cousins. In 2014, researchers uncovered evidence that Neanderthals in northern Europe hunted by herding mammoths and bison into a deep ravine. Take flour.
Medieval peasants got more vacation time than you Life for the medieval peasant was certainly no picnic. His life was shadowed by fear of famine, disease and bursts of warfare. His diet and personal hygiene left much to be desired. But despite his reputation as a miserable wretch, you might envy him one thing: his vacations. Plowing and harvesting were backbreaking toil, but the peasant enjoyed anywhere from eight weeks to half the year off. As for the modern American worker? It wasn’t supposed to turn out this way: John Maynard Keynes, one of the founders of modern economics, made a famous prediction that by 2030, advanced societies would be wealthy enough that leisure time, rather than work, would characterize national lifestyles. What happened? Fast-forward to the 21st century, and the U.S. is the only advanced country with no national vacation policy whatsoever. Some blame the American worker for not taking what is her due. Ironically, this cult of endless toil doesn’t really help the bottom line.
Women’s March Los Angeles draws estimated 750K: ‘This is what we do as Americans’ Fired up by what they call an election cycle that left them insulted and their rights threatened, hundreds of thousands of women — and the men who support them — gathered in downtown Los Angeles on Saturday as part of a nationwide act of solidarity to send a message to President Donald Trump’s administration. An estimated 750,000 people brought that message to L.A.’s packed streets in a loud but peaceful stand for equal rights and a defense of civil liberties. • Live Coverage: Women’s March Los Angeles and other protests On the half-mile route from Pershing Square to City Hall, they held up signs, some with graphic images and language directed at Trump, who took the office on Friday. • Photos: Women’s March Los Angeles Many in the crowd wore pink, knitted cat-earred hats in protest of Trump’s explicit remarks about grabbing women that were caught on a video released before the November election. • Video: Women’s March Los Angeles protesters chant Los Angeles Police Department Capt.