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Optogenetics: Controlling the Brain with Light [Extended Version]

Optogenetics: Controlling the Brain with Light [Extended Version]
Despite the enormous efforts of clinicians and researchers, our limited insight into psychiatric disease (the worldwide-leading cause of years of life lost to death or disability) hinders the search for cures and contributes to stigmatization. Clearly, we need new answers in psychiatry. But as philosopher of science Karl Popper might have said, before we can find the answers, we need the power to ask new questions. In other words, we need new technology. Developing appropriate techniques is difficult, however, because the mammalian brain is beyond compare in its complexity. It is an intricate system in which tens of billions of intertwined neurons—with multitudinous distinct characteristics and wiring patterns—compute with precisely timed, millisecond-scale electrical signals, as well as with a rich diversity of biochemical messengers. Optogenetics is the combination of genetics and optics to control well-defined events within specific cells of living tissue. Related links:

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Natural Foods That Support Candida Cleansing and What to Avoid Candida diets are a commonly known type of diet unlike most types of diets we hear about. A candida diet is catered to someone who has an overgrowth of a type of yeast we all have living inside of us: candida albicans. Though we have multiple types of yeast colonies (well, actually hundreds), along with other types of bacteria cultures inside our digestive tracts making up our microbiome, not all of these are good yeast or good bacteria we associate with probiotics, etc. Candida is one of the yeasts that can easily take over and when it does, you suffer severe health effects that not only weaken the body but also make you miserable in the meantime. Candida thrives off sugar, plain and simple.

The 5 Most Profitable Drugs They Never Cure You - New York News - Runn (...) In this week's cover story, writer Keegan Hamilton investigates the controversy surrounding ibogaine, the experimental hallucinogen drug that has helped kick meth and heroin addictions. Ibogaine is illegal, even though its power to cure addicts has been proven. Hamilton's story describes the many reasons the medical establishment and the government are wary of Ibogaine, despite its benefits, but one of them really stood out: Because Ibogaine is an outright cure, drug companies want nothing to do with it. Martin Kuehne, a chemist at the University of Vermont, is quoted in the story, saying, "Pharmaceutical companies don't like cures. Really, they don't -- that's the sad thing.

Why “Optogenetic” Methods for Manipulating Brains Don’t Light Me Up** It’s the kind of scitech innovation that, when I was a bright-eyed young science writer, made me think, “Cool!” But now stories like “OCD and Optogenetics: Lighting the brain up to shut a behavior down” bring out the curmudgeon in me. Does the trendy field of optogenetics deserve all its glowing coverage? The column, by my Scientific American co-blogger Scicurious, actually does a terrific job describing a recent advance in the fast-moving field of optogenetics. Optogenetics involves tweaking the genes of neurons so that they become sensitive to light. Natural Body Healing explains how to control candida albicans Controlling Candida Albicans to Restore Balance and Well-Being By Liz Barrington, Natural Body Healing Candida albicans overgrowth or ‘thrush’ as it’s often more commonly known can affect everyone – from babies to the elderly, and is amongst the most difficult of human ailments to treat. In the developed world, this condition is much more prevalent nowadays than it was 100 years ago, primarily because of our imbalanced diets, lifestyles and over-use of antibiotics, and this situation seems to be worsening. Most people aren't even aware that they have a candida problem - until they look at the list of associated symptoms below. Naturally found in the body, the fungus Candida albicans develops soon after birth in the intestinal tract of healthy babies in its yeast-like ‘friendly’ form and is normally kept under control by good bacteria that thrives in the bowel, such as the multiple strains of acidophilus.

Biophoton Communication: Can Cells Talk Using Light? One of the more curious backwaters of biology is the study of biophotons: optical or ultraviolet photons emitted by living cells in a way that is distinct from conventional bioluminescence. Nobody is quite sure how cells produce biophotons but the latest thinking is that various molecular processes can emit photons and that these are transported to the cell surface by energy carying excitons. A similar process carries the energy from photons across giant protein matrices during photosynthesis. Whatever the mechanism, a growing number of biologists are convinced that when you switch off the lights, cells are bathed in the pale fireworks of a biophoton display.

Optogenetics: Lighting Up the Brain Optogenetics allows researchers to manipulate neural pathways using light. Image from: As a child, the year 2000 seemed utterly distant and futuristic to me. Research Update:Black Sesame or Sesamum indicum L.MDidea-Extracts Professional.R067. Contents Research Update:Black Sesame or Sesamum indicum L. Why optogenetics deserves the hype Optogenetics has come in for some stick lately, with a number of people criticising the hype that this technique generates in some quarters. That’s fair enough, I suppose – there have no doubt been some claims made about what can be accomplished with this technique that are, at the very least, premature. I’m all for bashing hype (see The Trouble with Epigenetics 1 and 2, for example), but criticising the technique for what it’s not good for seems to be missing the point to me.

Dying of Lyme disease: Case fatality rate nearly 100% If you have Lyme Neuroborreliosis you will likely succumb to it eventually if you don’t receive proper, open-ended treatment. Because the big problem is that the overwhelming majority of neuro-Lyme is misdiagnosed as something else. Example: Lyme disease (neuroborreliosis) is a common cause of ALS, but ALS as a “disease on its own” is more profitable and prestigious, so if you have ALS symptoms and test positive for Lyme, you’ll get either an ALS diagnosis only or at best a dual diagnosis ALS & Lyme. That’s just how the medical profession and the pharmaceutical symptom relieving industry works. Instead of identifying a common cause for the myriads of neurological syndromes with unknown cause, they prefer to split them up into separate “diseases”, each with their own self-declared experts, patient organizations, government subsidies, research grants, charities and magazines.

Healthiest Nation in One Generation Take Action! Participate in APHA's legislative action alerts and urge policymakers to vote for and act on behalf of public health programs and services. While the United States spends more on health care than any other nation in the world, it lags behind many developed nations in important health measures. Gero Miesenböck wins 2013 Brain Prize for optogenetics Science | University 11 Mar 13 Professor Gero Miesenböck has been awarded The Brain Prize 2013 for his pioneering role in developing 'optogenetics', a revolutionary technique which uses light to control sets of nerve cells in order to reveal much about the brain. Oxford University neuroscientists have now been named as winners in two out of the three years this major new prize has been awarded.

Lyme Disease on Plum Island: Fringe Conspiracy Theory or Government Cover-up? By Smaranda Dumitru As an animal disease center Plum Island has been the focus of many dark government conspiracies, from top secret biological weapon experimentation during the Cold War to the working ground for Nazi scientists recruited after World War II. Perhaps scientific experimentation mixed with government classification is just a hotbed for saucy conspiracies, or maybe there is more to Plum Island than we suspect. A more recent theory is that Lyme disease escaped from Plum Island, which may be the most plausible conspiracy theory yet.