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Serotonin /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnɨn/ or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.[6] Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, where it serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and blood clotting. In addition to animals, serotonin is found in fungi and plants.[10] Serotonin's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side-effect of serotonin injection. Functions[edit] Receptors[edit] Gauge of food availability (appetite)[edit] Effects of food content[edit] [edit] Related:  LovePineal Gland (Bull.S. New Age Meditation)Health & Diet

Dopamine Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone (also known as Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone/Factor - PIH or PIF) and neurotransmitter of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells. Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system. Outside the nervous system, dopamine functions in several parts of the body as a local chemical messenger. A variety of important drugs work by altering the way the body makes or uses dopamine. §Dopaminergic systems of the body[edit] § In the brain[edit] Major dopamine pathways. §Outside the nervous system[edit] The immune system. §Cellular effects[edit]

Conifer cone The male cone (microstrobilus or pollen cone) is structurally similar across all conifers, differing only in small ways (mostly in scale arrangement) from species to species. Extending out from a central axis are microsporophylls (modified leaves). Under each microsporophyll is one or several microsporangia (pollen sacs). The female cone (megastrobilus, seed cone, or ovulate cone) contains ovules which, when fertilized by pollen, become seeds. The female cone structure varies more markedly between the different conifer families, and is often crucial for the identification of many species of conifers. Female cones of the conifer families[edit] Pinaceae cones[edit] Intact and disintegrated fir cones The members of the pine family (pines, spruces, firs, cedars, larches, etc.) have cones that are imbricate (that is, with scales overlapping each other like fish scales). Araucariaceae cones[edit] Podocarpaceae cones[edit] Berry-like Podocarpus cone Cupressaceae cones[edit] Sciadopityaceae cones[edit]

Evolutionary Psychiatry: Carbs and Serotonin, A Connection After All? A few weeks ago in Do Carbs Keep You Sane, I reported from a couple papers that disagreed with the textbook theory that a high carb, low protein and low fat diet would increase tryptophan in the brain. The Wurtmans from MIT have designed a whole pharmacologic diet around this theory, so it was interesting to read the rebuttal, especially since the rebuttal included data from Dr. Judith Wurtman's own papers. In short, the theory goes that carbohydrate ingestion stimulates insulin production, which in turn causes protein to be driven out of the bloodstream and into the cells. If we follow the lines of this theory, a high protein diet will increase the amount of other amino acids and increase the competition for the receptor, leaving tryptophan a loser and the brain relatively "low" in serotonin. Except in nutrition, nothing is ever simple. But Mr. High glycaemic index and glycaemic load meals increase the availability of tryptophan in healthy volunteers The results?

Norepinephrine Medically it is used in those with severe hypotension. It does this by increasing vascular tone (tension of vascular smooth muscle) through α-adrenergic receptor activation. Areas of the body that produce or are affected by norepinephrine are described as noradrenergic. One of the most important functions of norepinephrine is its role as the neurotransmitter released from the sympathetic neurons to affect the heart. Norepinephrine is synthesized from dopamine by dopamine β-hydroxylase in the secretory granules of the medullary chromaffin cells.[7] It is released from the adrenal medulla into the blood as a hormone, and is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and sympathetic nervous system, where it is released from noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Medical uses[edit] Norepinephrine is used for hypotension. Hypotension[edit] Norepinephrine is also used as a vasopressor medication (for example, brand name Levophed) for patients with critical hypotension.

Melatonin Melatonin The hormone can be used as a sleep aid and in the treatment of sleep disorders. It can be taken orally as capsules, tablets, or liquid. It is also available in a form to be used sublingually, and there are transdermal patches. There have been few clinical trials, particularly long-term ones, in the use of melatonin in humans. Discovery[edit] Biosynthesis[edit] Melatonin biosynthesis involves four enzymatic steps from the essential dietary amino acid tryptophan, which follows a serotonin pathway. In bacteria, protists, fungi, and plants melatonin is synthesized indirectly with tryptophan as an intermediate product of the shikimic acid pathway. Regulation[edit] In vertebrates, melatonin secretion is regulated by norepinephrine. It is principally blue light, around 460 to 480 nm, that suppresses melatonin,[24] proportional to the light intensity and length of exposure. Animals[edit] Plants[edit] Functions[edit] Circadian rhythm[edit] Antioxidant[edit] Immune system[edit] Medical uses[edit]

10 Superfoods Healthier Than Kale In the world of marketing, image is everything. If you’re James Franco or Roger Federer or Taylor Swift, your name and face can be used to sell anything from phones to watches to perfume—even if you’re not necessarily famous for the your tech-savvy, your promptness, or the way you smell. In the food world, the biggest celebrity of all might be kale—the Shakira of salads, the Lady Gaga of leafy greens. It’s universally recognized that kale anything—kale chips, kale pesto, kale face cream—instantly imparts a health halo. Even 7-Eleven is making over its image by offering kale cold-pressed juices. Still, kale’s actually not the healthiest green on the block. SUPERFOOD #10 Collard Greens Nutrition Score: 62.49 A staple vegetable of Southern U.S. cuisine, collard greens also boast incredible cholesterol-lowering benefits — especially when steamed. SUPERFOOD #9 Romaine Lettuce Nutrition Score: 63.48 SUPERFOOD #8 Parsley Nutrition Score: 65.59 SUPERFOOD #7 Leaf Lettuce Nutrition Score: 70.73 Chard.

The Romantic Syndrome: A Neuropsychological Perspective The Romantic Syndrome: A Neuropsychological Perspective. Isabel Jaén 1. Romanticism and emotional distress Emotional unbalance is responsible for major literary attitudes, such as the one adopted by the romantic literary movement. Let us begin by defining this artistic trend. The present paper deals with literature and we all know that literature consists of pretending to experience some of the emotions and attitudes described before. 2. As Joseph LeDoux reminds us, the mammalian system is basically emotional (3). Neurobiologically speaking, three main systems seem to be involved in emotion (5): the amygdala, which receives inputs from the association cortex of the temporal lobe, the frontal cortex, the limbic system, and the olfactory system; the orbitofrontal cortex, whose inputs come from the other regions of the frontal lobes, temporal pole, amygdala, and limbic system; and the cingulate gyrus, and projects to the limbic system and the frontal cortex. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (11) Jeannete M.

Pineal gland The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone, which affects the modulation of sleep patterns in both seasonal and circadian rhythms.[1][2] Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The gland has been compared to the photoreceptive, so-called third parietal eye present in the epithalamus of some animal species, which is also called the pineal eye. Structure[edit] The pineal gland is reddish-gray and about the size of a grain of rice (5–8 mm) in humans, located just rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus and behind and beneath the stria medullaris, between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies. Blood supply[edit] Histology[edit]