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Human Evolution Timeline

Human Evolution Timeline
Related:  Unit 1

Blue Planet Biomes - World Biomes What is a Biome? A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups, which are adapted to that particular environment. The climate and geography of a region determines what type of biome can exist in that region. Major biomes include deserts, forests, grasslands, tundra, and several types of aquatic environments. Each biome consists of many ecosystems whose communities have adapted to the small differences in climate and the environment inside the biome. All living things are closely related to their environment. The earth includes a huge variety of living things, from complex plants and animals to very simple, one-celled organisms.

Why Are Europeans White? The Puzzle: Northern Europeans are Uniquely Depigmented “White,” of course, is a a social designation. The question really is, “Why are northern Europeans depigmented?” Here is a map of human skin tone. The natives of northern Europe are oddly light-skinned. Most people know that it has something to do with sunlight, UV, latitude, and vitamin D. The closer you are to the equator, the darker your skin. It Has Something to do With Solar UV and Oceans UV rays produce vitamin D and reduce folate when they hit naked skin. Too much UV penetrating the skin (too pale-skinned under intense sunlight) increases Vitamin D but reduces folate. On the other hand, too little UV penetrating the skin (too dark-skinned under dim sunlight) increases folate but reduces vitamin D. And so, humans adapt very quickly to solar UV. But this explanation fails for Europe. Clearly, there once was a factor at work in Europe other than dim sunlight. Here is another map of skin tone. Skin, Hair, and Eyes: Neoteny

Boy finds 10,000-year-old arrowhead on New Jersey beach Noah Cordle, 10, found a 10,000-year-old Paleoindian arrow point on a New Jersey beach.Kelly-Jane Cotter/ Asbury Park Press BEACH HAVEN, N.J. – A boy playing on a New Jersey beach has unearthed a 10,000-year-old arrowhead possibly used by ancient Native Americans to spear fish or hunt mastodon. Noah Cordle, 10, and his family were vacationing on the Long Beach Island last week when he found it at the edge of the surf in the community of Beach Haven. It was sharp enough that it hurt as it hit his leg. He thought it was a crab until he picked up the object. The Springfield, Virginia family contacted the Archaeological Society of New Jersey to check it out. The president, Greg Lattanzi, who is also a curator at the New Jersey State Museum in Trenton, tells the Asbury Park Press that the arrow point probably dates back 8,000 to 11,000 years. "I was basically blown away," he said. Only one other in the collection washed up on a beach. "Jasper is a yellow-brown stone," Lattanzi told the paper.

Y-Chromosomal Adam Lived 208,300 Years Ago, Says New Study According to new research reported in the European Journal of Human Genetics, our most recent common ancestor – the so-called Y-chromosomal Adam – lived on the Earth 208,300 years ago. Creation of Adam, detail. By Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1510. Dr Eran Elhaik from the University of Sheffield and his co-authors used conventional biological models to show that Y-chromosomal Adam is 8,300 years older than scientists originally believed. “We can say with some certainty that modern humans emerged in Africa a little over 200,000 years ago,” Dr Elhaik said. The findings contradict a recent study – published in the American Journal of Human Genetics in February 2013 – which had claimed the human Y chromosome originated in a different species through interbreeding which dates Adam to be twice as old. “In fact, their hypothesis creates a sort of space-time paradox whereby the most ancient individual belonging to Homo sapiens species has not yet been born. Eran Elhaik et al. 2014.

Before Civilization - Ancient Civilizations for Kids Early humans showed another major sign of intelligence about 35,000 years ago. Humans began to draw on the walls of caves—probably other places too, but it has been preserved in caves. Cave paintings often depict hunting scenes. This is some of the first artwork and also an early attempt at written communication. Development of Agriculture The most important development in human history is the development agriculture, which is another word for farming. Corn is a good example of domestication. Humans have lived in Africa longer than anywhere else, but many African societies adopted farming much later than other parts of the world. The soil near rivers is very fertile—or full of plant food and good for growing. Agriculture Brings Changes Farming had other effects on lifestyle and society. The society that farming created forced people to interact in new ways. The world was rapidly changing and people finally had time to settle down and think about the world around them. A New Way of Life

Ancient Man Had Neanderthal Great-Great Grandfather A modern human who lived in what is now Romania between 37,000 and 42,000 years ago had at least one Neanderthal ancestor as little as four generations back—which is to say, a great-great-grandparent. Scientists have known for at least half a decade that living humans bear traces of Neanderthal blood—or more specifically, Neanderthal DNA. Just when and where our ancestors bred with their now-extinct cousins, however, has been tricky to pin down until now. A new study published Monday in the journal Nature has the highest percentage of Neanderthal DNA of any modern human ever studied. “I could hardly believe that we were lucky enough to hit upon an individual like this,” says study co-author Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig. The specimen, known as Oase 1, consists only of a male jawbone, and from the moment it was discovered in 2002 its shape suggested that it might belong to a hybrid between Homo sapiens and Neanderthal.

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