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Mahabharata

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced [məɦaːˈbʱaːrət̪əm]) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.[1] Besides its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pandava princes, the Mahabharata contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161). Among the principal works and stories in the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa. The other notable version of Mahabarath is Andhra mahabharatam, a Telugu language manuscript written by Kavitrayam in between 11-14th century AD. Textual history and structure Accretion and redaction The snake sacrifice of Janamejaya B.

Puru From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Puru may mean: Arjuna Arjun (pronounced [ɐrˈɟunɐ] in classical Sanskrit) (lit. 'bright' or 'silver' (cf. Latin argentum)) is the third of the Pandavas, the sons and princes of Pandu, who, with Krishna is considered the main hero of Mahabharata. In his role in the Mahabharata, Arjuna plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita, which is perhaps the best known sacred Hindu text in the World.[1][2][3][4] Arjuna was considered as a great archer. He was the only Atimaharathi warrior in Pandava army.[5] According to Lord Krishna, except Karna and Bhishma, no warrior in the 3 worlds can defeat Arjuna in battle.[6] He played a key role in ensuring the defeat of the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra War, Arjuna was an avatar of Nara, who along with the avatar of Narayana, Krishna, established Dharma in the Dvapara Yuga.[7] He was the student of Drona. Etymology and other names[edit] The Mahabharata refers to Arjuna by twelve different names. Birth and early years[edit] Pandu Shoots the Ascetic Kindama Tutelage under Drona[edit]

Indraprastha The city of Indraprastha ("City of Indra"), which is sometimes also known as Khandavaprastha, was the capital of the kingdom led by the Pandavas in the Mahabharata epic. It is often thought to have been located in the region of present-day New Delhi but there is no certainty. History[edit] Indraprastha is referenced in the Mahabharata, a Sanskrit Indian text compiled over a period of 800 years from around 400BCE. Primarily a story, it does nonetheless describe events that may in fact have happened. The Mahabharata records Indraprastha as being home to the Pandavas, whose wars with the Kauravas it describes. D. As of 2014, the Archeological Survey of India is continuing excavation in Purana Qila.[3] See also[edit] Ashokan Edicts in Delhi References[edit] Notes

Ramayana The Ramayana (Sanskrit: रामायणम्।, Rāmāyaṇam, pronounced [rɑːˈmɑːjəɳəm]) is one of the great Hindu epics. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu literature (smṛti), considered to be itihāasa.[1] The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of Hinduism, the other being the Mahabharata.[2] It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife, and the ideal king. The name Ramayana is a tatpurusha compound of Rāma and ayana ("going, advancing"), translating to "Rama's Journey". The Ramayana consists of 24,000 verses in seven books (kāṇḍas) and 500 cantos (sargas),[3] and tells the story of Rama (an avatar of the Hindu supreme-god Vishnu), whose wife Sita is abducted by Ravana, the king of Lanka (current day Sri Lanka). Thematically, the Ramayana explores human values and the concept of dharma.[4] Textual history and structure[edit] Period[edit] Characters[edit]

Dharmaśāstra Dharmaśāstra became influential in modern colonial India history, when they were formulated by early British colonial administrators to be the law of the land for all non-Muslims (Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs) in India, after Sharia was already accepted as the law for Muslims in colonial India.[12][13][14] History[edit] Copy of a royal land grant, recorded on copper plate, made by Chalukya King Tribhuvana Malla Deva in 1083 The Dharmashastras are based on ancient Dharmasūtras texts, which themselves emerged from the literary tradition of the Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sāma, and Atharva) composed in 2nd millennium BCE to the early centuries of the 1st millennium BCE. These Vedic branches split into various other schools (shakhas) possibly for a variety of reasons such as geography, specialization and disputes. The Dharmasutras[edit] The Dharmasutras were numerous, but only four texts have survived into the modern era. Style of composition[edit] Authorship and dates[edit] Excellence Ācāra[edit]

Indra Origins[edit] Aspects of Indra as a deity are cognate to other Indo-European gods; they are either thunder gods such as Thor, Perun, and Zeus, or gods of intoxicating drinks such as Dionysus. The name of Indra (Indara) is also mentioned among the gods of the Mitanni, a Hurrian-speaking people who ruled northern Syria from ca.1500BC-1300BC.[5] Vedic Indra corresponds to Verethragna of the Zoroastrian Avesta as the noun verethragna- corresponds to Vedic vrtrahan-, which is predominantly an epithet of Indra. The word vrtra-/verethra- means "obstacle". In the Rigveda[edit] The Rigveda states, He under whose supreme control are horses, all chariots, the villages, and cattle; He who gave being to the Sun and Morning, who leads the waters, He, O men, is Indra. (2.12.7, trans. It further states, Indra, you lifted up the pariah who was oppressed, you glorified the blind and the lame. The Rig-Veda frequently refers to him as Śakra: the mighty-one. Status and function[edit] Characteristics[edit]

Kalki In Hinduism, Kalki (Devanagari: कल्कि; meaning 'Eternity,' 'White Horse,' or 'Destroyer of Filth') is the final incarnation of Vishnu in the current Mahayuga, foretold to appear at the end of Kali Yuga, the current epoch. Religious texts called the Puranas foretell that Kalki will be atop a white horse with a drawn blazing sword. He is the harbinger of the end time in Hindu eschatology, after which he will usher in Satya Yuga. In Buddhist Kalachakra tradition, 25 rulers of the Shambhala Kingdom held the title of Kalki, Kulika or Kalki-king.[3] During Vaishakha, the first fortnight in Shukla Paksha is dedicated to fifteen deities, with each day for a different god. In this tradition, the twelfth day is Vaishakha Dwadashi and is dedicated to Madhava, another name for Kalki. Maha Avatara[edit] There are numerous interpretations of Vedic tradition. Puranas[edit] Birth[edit] As written in the Kalki Purana: Literal translation: शम्भल ग्राम मुख्यस्य ब्राह्मणस्य महात्मनः। The Bhagavata Purana states

Hinduism Sacred-texts home Journal Articles: Hinduism OCRT: Hinduism Buy CD-ROM Buy books about Hinduism Vedas Upanishads Puranas Other Primary Texts Epics Mahabharata Ramayana Bhagavad Gita Vedanta Later texts Modern books The Vedas There are four Vedas, the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. The Vedas are the primary texts of Hinduism. The Vedas contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India. Rig Veda The Rig-Veda translated by Ralph Griffith [1896]A complete English translation of the Rig Veda. Rig-Veda (Sanskrit)The complete Rig Veda in Sanskrit, in Unicode Devanagari script and standard romanization. Vedic Hymns, Part I (SBE 32)Hymns to the Maruts, Rudra, Vâyu and Vâta, tr. by F. Vedic Hymns, Part II (SBE 46)Hymns to Agni, tr. by Hermann Oldenberg [1897]The Vedic Hymns to Agni. A Vedic Reader for Students (excerpts) by A.A. Sama Veda The Sama-Veda translated by Ralph Griffith [1895]A collection of hymns used by the priests during the Soma sacrifice. Yajur Veda Puranas

Bhagavad Gita A Hindu scripture; part of the epic Mahabharata The Bhagavad Gita (; Sanskrit: भागवत गीता, IAST: bhagavad-gītā, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Sanskrit scripture that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of Bhishma Parva). The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna. At the start of the Dharma Yudhha (righteous war) between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause. He wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita. The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of Hindu ideas about dharma, theistic bhakti, and the yogic ideals of moksha. Nomenclature[edit] The Gita in the title of the text "Bhagavad Gita" means "song". Authorship[edit] According to J. Date[edit] Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier.

Mīmāṃsā Mīmāṃsā is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".[1][2] Also known as Pūrva-Mīmānsā or Karma-Mīmānsā,[3]) it is one of six orthodox (astika) schools of Hinduism. The school is known for its philosophical theories on the nature of dharma, based on hermeneutics of the Vedas.[4] The Mīmāṃsā school was foundational and influential for the vedāntic schools, which were also known as Uttara-Mīmāṃsā. The differences were that the Mīmāṃsā school developed and emphasized karmakāṇḍa, or the study of ritual actions, using the four early Vedas, while the Vedānta schools developed and emphasized jñanakāṇḍa, the study of knowledge and spirituality, using the later parts of Vedas like the Upaniṣads.[4] Mīmāṃsā has several sub-schools, each defined by its epistemology. The Mīmāṃsā school is a form of philosophical realism.[12] A key text of the Mīmāṃsā school is the Mīmāṃsā Sūtra of Jaimini.[3][13] Terminology[edit] Mīmāṃsā scholars are referred to as Mīmāṃsākas. Anumana[edit]

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