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Argument map

Argument map
A schematic argument map showing a contention (or conclusion), supporting arguments and objections, and an inference objection. Argument maps are commonly used in the context of teaching and applying critical thinking.[2] The purpose of mapping is to uncover the logical structure of arguments, identify unstated assumptions, evaluate the support an argument offers for a conclusion, and aid understanding of debates. Argument maps are often designed to support deliberation of issues, ideas and arguments in wicked problems.[3] Key features[edit] A number of different kinds of argument map have been proposed but the most common, which Chris Reed and Glenn Rowe called the standard diagram,[5] consists of a tree structure with each of the reasons leading to the conclusion. According to Doug Walton and colleagues, an argument map has two basic components: "One component is a set of circled numbers arrayed as points. Statements 1 and 2 are dependent premises or co-premises History[edit] Notes[edit] Related:  Saved Wiki

Systems Thinking Mind Map Araucaria (software) The user interface is composed of a main window (diagramming), a schemes editor and the AraucariaDB online interface. While Araucaria helps identify the structure of an argument, it provides freedom of analysis resources. The scheme editor allows the user to create argumentation schemes, group them together and save them into a scheme set file. The AraucariaDB Online Repository can be browsed to retrieve specific arguments to fit a diagram. Because it is based on XML, a standard widely used by developers, AML content can be accessed through other software that support XML.

Visualization (computer graphics) See also Information graphics Visualization or visualisation is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message. Visualization through visual imagery has been an effective way to communicate both abstract and concrete ideas since the dawn of man. Examples from history include cave paintings, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Greek geometry, and Leonardo da Vinci's revolutionary methods of technical drawing for engineering and scientific purposes. Visualization today has ever-expanding applications in science, education, engineering (e.g., product visualization), interactive multimedia, medicine, etc. Charles Minard's information graphic of Napoleon's march Computer graphics has from its beginning been used to study scientific problems. Apart from the distinction between interactive visualizations and animation, the most useful categorization is probably between abstract and model-based scientific visualizations.

Using Webb's Depth of Knowledge to Increase Rigor The word "rigor" is hard to avoid today, and it provokes strong reactions from educators. Policymakers tout its importance. Publishers promote it as a feature of their materials. But some teachers share the view of Joanne Yatvin, past president of the National Council for Teachers of English. To them, rigor simply means more work, harder books, and longer school days. Calculating Cognitive Depth For classroom teachers, the more important question is one of practice: how do we create rich environments where all students learn at a high level? Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Tasks at this level require recall of facts or rote application of simple procedures. Level 2: Skills and Concepts At this level, a student must make some decisions about his or her approach. Level 3: Strategic Thinking At this level of complexity, students must use planning and evidence, and thinking is more abstract. Level 4: Extended Thinking Level 4 tasks require the most complex cognitive effort. Apply as Needed

Artificial intelligence in video games In strategy games like Freeciv, the game AI must deal with large amounts of information In video games, artificial intelligence (AI) is used to generate responsive, adaptive or intelligent behaviors primarily in non-player characters (NPCs) similar to human-like intelligence. Artificial intelligence has been an integral part of video games since their inception in the 1950s.[1] The role of AI in video games has expanded greatly since its introduction. Modern games often implement existing techniques from the field of artificial intelligence such as pathfinding and decision trees to guide the actions of NPCs. Additionally, AI is often used in mechanisms which are not immediately visible to the user, such as data mining and procedural-content generation.[2] Overview[edit] Many industry and corporate voices[who?] However, many[who?] History[edit] Light cycle characters compete to be the last one riding, in GLtron. Views[edit] Usage[edit] In computer simulations of board games[edit] Georgios N.

Mind map A mind map about educational technology A mind map is a diagram used to visually organize information. A mind map is hierarchical and shows relationships among pieces of the whole.[1] It is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those major ideas. Mind maps can also be drawn by hand, either as "rough notes" during a lecture, meeting or planning session, for example, or as higher quality pictures when more time is available. Mind maps are considered to be a type of spider diagram.[2] A similar concept in the 1970s was "idea sun bursting".[3] Origins[edit] The semantic network was developed in the late 1950s as a theory to understand human learning and developed further by Allan M. Popularisation[edit] Guidelines[edit] Uses[edit] Research[edit] Features[edit]

Ten Takeaway Tips for Teaching Critical Thinking Suggestions from educators at KIPP King Collegiate High School on how to help develop and assess critical-thinking skills in your students. Ideally, teaching kids how to think critically becomes an integral part of your approach, no matter what subject you teach. But if you're just getting started, here are some concrete ways you can begin leveraging your students' critical-thinking skills in the classroom and beyond. 1. Questions, questions, questions. Questioning is at the heart of critical thinking, so you want to create an environment where intellectual curiosity is fostered and questions are encouraged. In the beginning stages, you may be doing most of the asking to show your students the types of questions that will lead to higher-level thinking and understanding. 2. Pose a provocative question to build an argument around and help your students break it down. 3. 4. 5. Lively discussions usually involve some degree of differing perspectives. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Applications of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, remote sensing, scientific discovery and toys. However, many AI applications are not perceived as AI: "A lot of cutting edge AI has filtered into general applications, often without being called AI because once something becomes useful enough and common enough it's not labeled AI anymore," Nick Bostrom reports.[1] "Many thousands of AI applications are deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry." In the late 90s and early 21st century, AI technology became widely used as elements of larger systems, but the field is rarely credited for these successes. Computer science[edit] AI researchers have created many tools to solve the most difficult problems in computer science. Many of their inventions have been adopted by mainstream computer science and are no longer considered a part of AI. Finance[edit] Hospitals and medicine[edit] Heavy industry[edit]

Concept map An Electricity Concept Map, an example of a concept map A concept map or conceptual diagram is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts.[1] It is a graphical tool that designers, engineers, technical writers, and others use to organize and structure knowledge. A concept map typically represents ideas and information as boxes or circles, which it connects with labeled arrows in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. Overview[edit] A concept map is a way of representing relationships between ideas, images, or words in the same way that a sentence diagram represents the grammar of a sentence, a road map represents the locations of highways and towns, and a circuit diagram represents the workings of an electrical appliance. Concept maps were developed to enhance meaningful learning in the sciences. Differences from other visualizations[edit] History[edit] Various attempts have been made to conceptualize the process of creating concept maps. Use[edit] See also[edit]

Claim Evidence Reasoning By far, the biggest shift in my teaching from year 1 to year 7 has been how much emphasis I now place on evaluating evidence and making evidence-based claims. I blame inquiry. Not inquiry in the generalized, overloaded, science teaching approach sense. Even now, when I hear the word "inquiry" I still think mainly of asking questions and designing experiments. We were very busy and very engaged and learned very little. There are a few structures I've been using to help shift the focus on the class to analysis and argument. Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (pdf and pdf) is a framework for writing scientific explanations. As part of their lab handout they get a prompt that looks like this: As the year goes on I remove most of the scaffolds until ultimately the students just get a prompt or question. I've been happy with it. I like frameworks a lot. The key to implementation is that the structure of the class really has to be designed around C-E-R. I also give my students a whiteboard format now.

As a service Service model[edit] See cloud computing service models for more information. Examples[edit] Examples include: References[edit] ^ Robin Hastings, Making the Most of the Cloud: How to Choose and Implement the Best Services (2013), p. 3.^ I. ‘Dream Team’ of Behavioral Scientists Advised Obama Campaign Chris Keane/Reuters DOOR TO DOOR Ricky Hall, an Obama volunteer, in Charlotte, N.C., last week. “He said, ‘Bring the whole group; let’s hear what you have to say,’ ” recalled Dr. Fox, a behavioral economist at the University of California, Los Angeles. So began an effort by a team of social scientists to help their favored candidate in the 2012 presidential election. Some members of the team had consulted with the Obama campaign in the 2008 cycle, but the meeting in January signaled a different direction. “The culture of the campaign had changed,” Dr. This election season the Obama campaign won a reputation for drawing on the tools of social science. Less well known is that the Obama campaign also had a panel of unpaid academic advisers. “In the way it used research, this was a campaign like no other,” said Todd Rogers, a psychologist at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government and a former director of the Analyst Institute. In addition to Dr. “A kind of dream team, in my opinion,” Dr. Mr.

Agnotology Agnotology (formerly agnatology) is the study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt, particularly the publication of inaccurate or misleading scientific data. In 1995 Robert N. Proctor, a Stanford University professor specializing in the history of science and technology,[1] and linguist Iain Boal coined the neologism[2][3][4] on the basis of the Neoclassical Greek word ἄγνωσις, agnōsis, "not knowing" (cf. Attic Greek ἄγνωτος "unknown"[5]), and -λογία, -logia.[6] More generally, the term also highlights the increasingly common condition where more knowledge of a subject leaves one more uncertain than before. David Dunning of Cornell University is another academic who studies the spread of ignorance. "Dunning warns that the internet is helping propagate ignorance – it is a place where everyone has a chance to be their own expert, he says, which makes them prey for powerful interests wishing to deliberately spread ignorance".[7] In his 1999 book The Erotic Margin, Irvin C. cognitronics

Browser extension A browser extension is a small software module for customizing a web browser. Browsers typically allow a variety of extensions, including user interface modifications, ad blocking, and cookie management. History[edit] API conformity[edit] In 2015, a community working group formed under the W3C to create a single standard application programming interface (API) for browser extensions.[3] While that goal is unlikely to be achieved,[4] the majority of browsers already use the same or very similar APIs due to the popularity of Google Chrome. Chrome was the first browser with an extension API based solely on HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. With its own market share in decline, Mozilla also decided to conform. Unwanted behavior[edit] There have also been cases of applications installing browser extensions in a sneaky manner, while making it hard for the user to uninstall the unwanted extension.[25] References[edit] External links[edit] Official extension stores for Chrome, Safari, Firefox, Edge, Opera

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