Artificial Intelligence introduction › cross-links to AI Context The PRL project aims to naturally express the reasoning of computer scientists and mathematicians when they are justifying programs or claims. It represents mathematical knowledge and makes it accessible in problem solving. These goals are similar to goals in AI, and our project has strong ties to AI. We see AI as having a definite birth event and date: the Dartmouth Conference in the summer of 1956 organized by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky. According to many AI researchers, they have set the agenda for a large part of Computer Science in the sense that AI successes seeded separate research areas of CS, some no longer even associated with AI. It is clear that our project has benefitted substantially from AI research, and that will continue. For us, the science fiction is a world in which the progeny of Nuprl are helping computer scientists crack the P = NP problem or helping mathematicians settle the Riemann hypothesis. Knowledge Representation
Machine Intelligence Research Institute The Machine Intelligence Research Institute (MIRI) is a non-profit organization founded in 2000 to research safety issues related to the development of Strong AI. The organization advocates ideas initially put forth by I. J. Good and Vernor Vinge regarding an "intelligence explosion", or Singularity, which MIRI thinks may follow the creation of sufficiently advanced AI. Research fellow Eliezer Yudkowsky coined the term Friendly AI to refer to a hypothetical super-intelligent AI that has a positive impact on humanity. The organization has argued that to be "Friendly" a self-improving AI needs to be constructed in a transparent, robust, and stable way. MIRI was formerly known as the Singularity Institute, and before that as the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence. History In 2003, the Institute appeared at the Foresight Senior Associates Gathering, where co-founder Eliezer Yudkowsky presented a talk titled "Foundations of Order". Usefulness See also
Nick Bostrom’s Superintelligence and the metaphorical AI time bomb Frank Knight was an idiosyncratic economist who formalized a distinction between risk and uncertainty in his 1921 book Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit. As Knight saw it, an ever-changing world brings new opportunities, but also means we have imperfect knowledge of future events. According to Knight, risk applies to situations where we do not know the outcome of a given situation, but can accurately measure the odds. Uncertainty, on the other hand, applies to situations where we cannot know all the information we need in order to set accurate odds in the first place. “There is a fundamental distinction between the reward for taking a known risk and that for assuming a risk whose value itself is not known,” Knight wrote. A known risk is “easily converted into an effective certainty,” while “true uncertainty,” as Knight called it, is “not susceptible to measurement.” Sometimes, due to uncertainty, we react too little or too late, but sometimes we overreact. So what is superintelligence?
Stanford to Research the effects of Artificial Intelligence What will intelligent machines mean for society and the economy in 30, 50 or even 100 years from now? That’s the question that Stanford University scientists are hoping to take on with a new project, the One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence (AI100). “If your goal is to create a process that looks ahead 30 to 50 to 70 years, it’s not altogether clear what artificial intelligence will mean, or how you would study it,” said Russ Altman, a professor of bioengineering and computer science at Stanford. “But it’s a pretty good bet that Stanford will be around, and that whatever is important at the time, the university will be involved in it.” The future, and potential, of artificial intelligence has come under fire and increasing scrutiny in the past several months after both renowned physicist, cosmologist and author Stephen Hawking and high-tech entrepreneur Elon Musk warned of what they perceive as a mounting danger from developing AI technology. Written By: Sharon Gaudin
Stephen Hawking: 'Transcendence looks at the implications of artificial intelligence - but are we taking AI seriously enough?' - Science - News Artificial-intelligence (AI) research is now progressing rapidly. Recent landmarks such as self-driving cars, a computer winning at Jeopardy! and the digital personal assistants Siri, Google Now and Cortana are merely symptoms of an IT arms race fuelled by unprecedented investments and building on an increasingly mature theoretical foundation. Such achievements will probably pale against what the coming decades will bring. The potential benefits are huge; everything that civilisation has to offer is a product of human intelligence; we cannot predict what we might achieve when this intelligence is magnified by the tools that AI may provide, but the eradication of war, disease, and poverty would be high on anyone's list. Loading gallery In pictures: Landmarks in AI development 1 of 4 Unfortunately, it might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks. Johnny Depp plays a scientist who is shot by Luddites in 'Transcendence' (Alcon)
J J Bryson; Ethics, Robots, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Society Last revised 20 February 2018 (just publications & media). For my latest views, see also my blogposts on AI and on Ethics. Everyone should think about the ethics of the work they do, and the work they choose not to do. Artificial Intelligence and robots often seem like fun science fiction, but in fact already affect our daily lives. For example, services like Google and Amazon help us find what we want by using AI. They learn both from us and about us when we use them. Since 1996 I have been writing about AI and Society, including maintaining this web page. But by 2008 the USA had more robots in Iraq than allied troops (about 9,000). The purpose of this page is to explain why people worry about the wrong things when they worry about AI. I hope that by writing this page, I can help us worry about the right things. Why Build AI? Of course, all knowledge and tools, including AI, can be used for good or for bad. Why We Shouldn't Fear Robots – They Aren't People (or Even Apes) More from me:
Peering into the Future: AI and Robot brains In Singularity or Transhumanism: What Word Should We Use to Discuss the Future? on Slate, Zoltan Istvan writes: "The singularity people (many at Singularity University) don't like the term transhumanism. Transhumanists don't like posthumanism. See what the proponents of these words mean by them and why the old talmudic rabbis and jesuits are probably laughing their socks off. Progress toward AI? Baby X, a 3D-simulated human child is getting smarter day by day. "An experiment in machine learning, Baby X is a program that imitates the biological processes of learning, including association, conditioning and reinforcement learning. This is precisely the sixth approach to developing AI that is least discussed by “experts” in the field… and that I have long believed to be essential, in several ways. It's coming. Meet Jibo, advertised as "the world's first family robot." Ever hear of “neuromorphic architecture?” Now… How to keep what we produce sane? Creating Superintelligence Developing Brain
VUB Artificial Intelligence Lab