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America's Real Criminal Element: Lead

America's Real Criminal Element: Lead
Illustration: Gérard DuBois When Rudy Giuliani ran for mayor of New York City in 1993, he campaigned on a platform of bringing down crime and making the city safe again. It was a comfortable position for a former federal prosecutor with a tough-guy image, but it was more than mere posturing. Since 1960, rape rates had nearly quadrupled, murder had quintupled, and robbery had grown fourteenfold. New Yorkers felt like they lived in a city under siege. Throughout the campaign, Giuliani embraced a theory of crime fighting called "broken windows," popularized a decade earlier by James Q. Giuliani won the election, and he made good on his crime-fighting promises by selecting Boston police chief Bill Bratton as the NYPD's new commissioner. The results were dramatic. But even more remarkable is what happened next. All in all, it seemed to be a story with a happy ending, a triumph for Wilson and Kelling's theory and Giuliani and Bratton's practice. The PB Effect Did Lead Make You Dumber? Related:  Medical Matters

The Spectrum of Color Response: Take Your Medicine - The color of your pills matters. So does the color of your editing pen, of your hockey jersey, of your clothes… New research finds that when generic pills don’t share the colors given them by their original makers, patients stop renewing their prescriptions at a higher rate than if they just kept taking the old-style, brand-name medicine. Given that generics are cheaper than OEM pharmaceuticals, and that presumably the patients has gotten in the habit of both taking their medicine and renewing their prescriptions, the change in color (and shape, to a much lesser extent) seems a bit counterintuitive. Green can spark creativity. Color is a less-than-subtle indicator in human interaction and for life in general—think honey bees and coral snakes signaling their cantankerousness. In the pill study, reported in Archives of Internal Medicine, for example, the patients were drawn from more than 60,000 people taking an epilepsy medication.

How Marlboro Used a Network of Young Smokers to Skirt the Laws Against Tobacco Promotion The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2015, which amended the Juvenile Justice Act of 2000, was passed in the winter session of the parliament in December 2015, and came into effect on 15 January 2016. The act allows juveniles between the ages of 16 and 18 years, charged with heinous crimes, to be tried as adults. It was passed amidst the public outcry that followed the release of the juvenile accused of the rape of Jyoti Kumar Pandey in 2012, and was widely criticised for being passed in haste. The act also makes it illegal to serve children any tobacco products, alcohol, narcotic drugs, and psychotropic substances. Marlboro’s youth marketing programme, of which the connectors were a part, is something of an industry secret. This strict legal intolerance for tobacco promotion has put the industry perpetually on the lookout for ways it can still reach new consumers. BY ALL ACCOUNTS, the Indian tobacco industry is thriving.

La Suède et le Québec qu'elle nous inspire - La gouvernance par le savoir La résilience de la social-démocratie en Suède repose sur la façon dont les citoyens prennent leurs décisions. L’élaboration des politiques publiques est délibérative, ce qui suppose de longues périodes d’analyse et d’évaluation par des spécialistes bien formés, ainsi que des consultations publiques rigoureuses. Au cours de ce processus, de grands efforts sont déployés pour acquérir une connaissance aussi complète que possible d’une question donnée, notamment par un examen approfondi des expériences historiques ainsi que des solutions de rechange proposées par les chercheurs, en Suède comme à l’étranger. Toutes les parties intéressées sont mises à contribution. Par exemple, en matière d’acceptabilité sociale d’un projet donné, le gouvernement suédois s’oblige à consulter par écrit une liste d’organismes représentant tous les secteurs de la société civile qui sont appelés à donner leur opinion sur le projet. Un peu comme les conseils québécois, les agences sont indépendantes.

Melanoma crushed by the body’s defence A new method for treating melanoma is showing great promise in a Danish hospital. By treating patients with their own T-cells, researchers can kick-start the patients’ immune system and make it destroy the cancer cells. (Photo: Colourbox) Melanoma is a type of skin cancer and is the leading cause of death from skin disease. So far, the disease has been regarded almost as a death sentence when it has started to spread to other parts of the body. However, a new hospital study using a treatment form known as cell-based immunotherapy may offer hope for melanoma patients. By treating patients with their own T-cells, the defence forces of our immune system, researchers can kick-start the immune system and make it destroy the cancer cells. The new method could potentially offer hope and be an effective treatment against several forms of cancer. “Most types of cancer contain T-cells, so in principle, T-cell therapy could potentially become a form of treatment for many types of cancer.” Melanoma

The Gift of Death Pathological consumption has become so normalised that we scarcely notice it. By George Monbiot, published in the Guardian 11th December 2012 There’s nothing they need, nothing they don’t own already, nothing they even want. They seem amusing on the first day of Christmas, daft on the second, embarrassing on the third. Researching her film The Story of Stuff, Annie Leonard discovered that of the materials flowing through the consumer economy, only 1% remain in use six months after sale(1). But many of the products we buy, especially for Christmas, cannot become obsolescent. The fatuity of the products is matched by the profundity of the impacts. People in eastern Congo are massacred to facilitate smart phone upgrades of ever diminishing marginal utility(3). In 2007, the journalist Adam Welz records, 13 rhinos were killed by poachers in South Africa. This boom has not happened by accident. 1. 2. 3. 7.

Des radicaux opposés à l'État ciblent des juges et des policiers du Québec | Vincent Larouche | Affaires criminelles Les «Freemen on the Land» ou «Sovereign Citizens» (Citoyens souverains) sont déjà bien connus des autorités de plusieurs communautés anglophones nord-américaines. Ils rejettent vigoureusement l'État, le système économique, les services publics, les lois, qu'ils assimilent à une vaste conspiration dont ils peuvent prétendument s'extirper grâce à leurs soi-disant connaissances juridiques et constitutionnelles. Ils se rebellent au point de cesser de payer leurs factures, de rouler en voiture sans plaque d'immatriculation et de résister à la police. Ce phénomène est peu connu au Québec et peut paraître étrange à première vue. «Tout s'est produit l'année dernière, raconte-t-il, dans un entretien avec La Presse. «J'ai pris ça au sérieux dès le début, car je parle aux collègues des autres provinces, et on m'a dit que c'est devenu une plaie dans l'Ouest. Hypothèque mobilière Des mesures existent pour filtrer les avis frivoles. Parade en place En chiffres

Researchers restore hearing in mammals by regenerating auditory hair cells There is new hope for those of us who have overindulged in loud bands and dread the prospect of old age spent with an ear trumpet clamped to the sides of our heads. Researchers from Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Harvard Medical School have been able to stimulate resident auditory hair cells to become new ones, resulting in partial hearing recovery in mice whose hearing has been damaged by noise trauma. Auditory hair cells are located in the cochlea of the inner ear and are responsible for translating auditory stimuli into electrical signals that are passed to the brain via the auditory nerve. In mammals, (unlike birds and fish), once these cells are damaged, whether by excessive noise exposure, aging, infections, toxins, or certain antibiotics and cancer drugs, they do not regenerate naturally. This causes what is known as sensorineural hearing loss, the most common form of hearing loss.

Why Bernie Sanders Is Adopting a Nordic-Style Approach Bernie Sanders is hanging on, still pushing his vision of a Nordic-like socialist utopia for America, and his supporters love him for it. Hillary Clinton, meanwhile, is chalking up victories by sounding more sensible. “We are not Denmark,” she said in the first Democratic debate, pointing instead to America’s strengths as a land of freedom for entrepreneurs and businesses. Commentators repeat endlessly the mantra that Sanders’s Nordic-style policies might sound nice, but they’d never work in the U.S. A Nordic person myself, I left my native Finland seven years ago and moved to the U.S. But this vision of homogenous, altruistic Nordic lands is mostly a fantasy. When I lived in Finland, as a middle-class citizen I paid income tax at a rate not much higher than what I now pay in New York City. But wait, most Americans would say: Those policies work well because all Nordics share a sense of kinship and have fond feelings for each other. The problem is the way Sanders has talked about it.

The Radiation Warnings You Won’t Get from the Mainstream Propaganda Machine The mainstream media and the federal government will soon have the blood of the world on it’s hands. Radiation from the Fukushima Nuclear Plant disaster in Japan is now actively in the ecosystem all along the North American west coast… even the sea weed is now radiated. The Vancouver Sun reported one year ago that the seaweed tested from waters off the coast of British Columbia were 4 times the amount considered safe. The governments of the United States and Canada are not conducting tests for radioactivity – at least not to the knowledge of the public. After the North American governments refused to fund testing, oceanographer Ken Buesseler, a senior scientist at the non-profit Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Mass, along with Nicholas Fisher, a marine sciences professor at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and other concerned scientists, managed to secure private funding for a Pacific research voyage. How can we protect ourselves?

MIT developing self-healing materials that act like blood clots Blood clots are one way in which the body heals itself after injuries on even the tiniest level. The process is fast, reliable and goes on every minute of the day without our being aware of it. Now, a team led by MIT assistant professor of materials science and engineering Alfredo Alexander-Katz is studying blood clots as a new model for producing self-healing materials. Blood clotting seems simple. Clotting or coagulation uses a squad of molecules present in the tissues and bloodstream. What they discovered was the opposite of what one would expect. The process that the team studied involves platelets and a biopolymer molecule called Willebrand factor (vWF). When coiled up the vWF just rolls by, but when stretched, the exposed sticky surfaces start to catch hold of the platelets and entangle them. The upshot of all this is a new model for a self-repairing material. These properties make clots very interesting to engineers. In the video below, Alexander-Katz describes the process.