Meaning of life Questions Questions about the meaning of life have been expressed in a broad variety of ways, including the following: What is the meaning of life? What's it all about? Philosopher in Meditation (detail) by RembrandtWhy are we here? These questions have resulted in a wide range of competing answers and arguments, from scientific theories, to philosophical, theological, and spiritual explanations. Scientific inquiry and perspectives Many members of the scientific community and philosophy of science communities think that science can provide the relevant context, and set of parameters necessary for dealing with topics related to the meaning of life. Psychological significance and value in life Neuroscience describes reward, pleasure, and motivation in terms of neurotransmitter activity, especially in the limbic system and the ventral tegmental area in particular. Neurotheology is a controversial field which tries to find neural correlates and mechanisms of religious experience. Parapsychology
Collective unconscious Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology, coined by Carl Jung. It is proposed to be a part of the unconscious mind, expressed in humanity and all life forms with nervous systems, and describes how the structure of the psyche autonomously organizes experience. Jung distinguished the collective unconscious from the personal unconscious, in that the personal unconscious is a personal reservoir of experience unique to each individual, while the collective unconscious collects and organizes those personal experiences in a similar way with each member of a particular species. Jung's definitions For Jung, “My thesis then, is as follows: in addition to our immediate consciousness, which is of a thoroughly personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche (even if we tack on the personal unconscious as an appendix), there exists a second psychic system of a collective, universal, and impersonal nature which is identical in all individuals. See also
Psychology and Alchemy Psychology and Alchemy is Volume 12 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. Detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online. Overview In this book, Jung argues for a reevaluation of the symbolism of Alchemy as being intimately related to the psychoanalytical process. In drawing these parallels Jung reinforces the universal nature of his theory of the archetype and makes an impassioned argument for the importance of spirituality in the psychic health of the modern man. Also interesting about this book is that the patient whose dreams are being analyzed in the second section is the physicist Wolfgang Pauli, who would go on to collaborate with Jung on such ideas as the acausal connection principle of synchronicity. Content Part I. Part II. Jung sets out his agenda and explains his method. Part III. Quotations Editions Jung, C.G. (1968). References
Archetype The concept of an archetype /ˈɑːrkɪtaɪp/ appears in areas relating to behavior, historical psychological theory, and literary analysis. An archetype can be: Etymology The word archetype, "original pattern from which copies are made", first entered into English usage in the 1540s and derives from the Latin noun archetypum, latinisation of the Greek noun ἀρχέτυπον (archétypon), whose adjective form is ἀρχέτυπος (archétypos), which means "first-molded", which is a compound of ἀρχή archḗ, "beginning, origin", and τύπος týpos, which can mean, amongst other things, "pattern", "model", or "type". It, thus, referred to the beginning or origin of the pattern, model or type. Function Usage of archetypes in specific pieces of writing is a holistic approach, which can help the writing win universal acceptance. Plato The origins of the archetypal hypothesis date as far back as Plato. Jungian archetypes Jung states in part one of Man And His Symbols that:
From the classroom to the frontline – schools must be careful what they teach kids about the army By Jonathan Parry *reposted from Dinner time at Harrogate’s army foundation college. When you think of child soldiers, it might conjure up images of young children far away, taken from their homes and forced to take part in war and fighting, often held against their will. It may surprise you then to learn the UK employs child soldiers – about 23% of army personnel were recruited before their 18th birthday. This policy has earned criticism from humanitarian organisations – including the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. And yet this is something the UK government arguably wants to see more of. Given that the number of children signing up has declined over the last two decades, three of the report’s 20 recommendations implore the government to increase efforts to promote military service to young people. Frontline roles Kill or be killed
The Futurist: The Misandry Bubble - by Imran Khan Why does it seem that American society is in decline, that fairness and decorum are receding, that mediocrity and tyranny are becoming malignant despite the majority of the public being averse to such philosophies, yet the true root cause seems elusive? What if everything from unsustainable health care and social security costs, to stagnant wages and rising crime, to crumbling infrastructure and metastasizing socialism, to the economic decline of major US cities like Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and Baltimore, could all be traced to a common origin that is extremely pervasive yet is all but absent from the national dialog, indeed from the dialog of the entire Western world? Today, on the first day of the new decade of '201x' years, I am going to tell you why that is. This is a very long article, the longest ever written on The Futurist. The Cultural Thesis As far as selective anecdotes like voting rights go, in the vast majority of cases, men could not vote either.
Jung on Death and Immortality - C. G. Jung - Google Books Psychological Types Psychological Types is Volume 6 in the Princeton / Bollingen edition of The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. It was also published in the U.K. by Routledge. The original German language edition, Psychologische Typen, was first published by Rascher Verlag, Zurich in 1921. Extensive detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online. The eight psychological types are as follows: Extraverted sensationIntroverted sensationExtraverted intuitionIntroverted intuitionExtraverted thinkingIntroverted thinkingExtraverted feelingIntroverted feeling Historical context The characteristic animosity between the adherents of the two standpoints arises from the fact that either standpoint necessarily involves a devaluation and disparagement of the other. Due to the multifarious nature of fantasy, the fantasies of both Adlerian and Freudian patients contained ample empirical evidence to reinforce the steadfast belief of each side in their respective theories. See also Notes
The Trick To Thinking Clearer and Better – Personal Growth The late historians Will and Ariel Durant spent four decades of their life studying, compiling, and writing the history of Western civilization. The product of their efforts, The Story of Civilization, went on to fill four million words, across 10,000 pages, divided into 11 separate books. After finishing the last one, they then took on an arguably more daunting task: to summarize all they had learned into a 100 pages in The Lessons of History. It’s an incomplete and generalizing attempt, no doubt, but it is also one of the most densely-packed sources of modern wisdom available to us. There are many trends and patterns to be found in the past, and the Durants do a commendable job of highlighting them. “The only real revolution is in the enlightenment of the mind and the improvement of character, the only real emancipation is individual, and the only real revolutionists are philosophers and saints.” A Mind That Is Stuck in Habit Loops Diversifying Your Thinking Patterns The Takeaway
King, Warrior, Magician, Lover – archetypes of the mature Masculine Front page » Articles » King, Warrior, Magician, Lover (KWML) – archetypes of the mature Masculine by Eivind Figenschau Skjellum A brief introduction to the KWML archetypes of the mature masculine The seminal work by Robert Moore and Douglas Gillette that underlies this article. As any man with life experience knows, life is a constant struggle wherein the desired goal is our attainment of inner peace as well as the ability to give and receive love fearlessly. On this journey of discovery and growth, there are many forces within us that battle for attention. One of the most important types of work we can can do in our growth into maturity is to identify and befriend these voices, so that they find and relax into their rightful place in what becomes an increasingly integrated psyche. Jung did very important, revolutionary work on the archetypes and the collective unconscious. * However, depending on cultural conditions, some archetypes may be more needed than others. Fig. 1: The KWML model
academyofideas View art in video The following is a transcript of this video. Far too many of us are oblivious to the dangers that some of our behavioural patterns pose to our long-term well-being. Instead of facing up to our problems, we either try and convince ourselves that our issues are trivial and so can be ignored, or we pretend that the problems do not exist at all. Jung, however, is not unique in this respect as many philosophers and psychologists, both past and present, share in this view. “What most people overlook or seem unable to understand is the fact that I regard the psyche as real.” The psyche, in Jung’s view is not merely a by-product of a certain configuration of matter. One reason for this lack of knowledge can be attributed to our Christian heritage and the associated belief in an omniscient god who not only knew if we were committing bad deeds, but also if we were thinking blasphemous thoughts. Jung was no proponent of this ideal. Further Readings Art Used in this Video Related
Prototype theory Prototype theory is a mode of graded categorization in cognitive science, where some members of a category are more central than others. For example, when asked to give an example of the concept furniture, chair is more frequently cited than, say, stool. Prototype theory has also been applied in linguistics, as part of the mapping from phonological structure to semantics. Overview Terminology The term prototype, as defined in Eleanor Rosch's study "Natural Categories" (1973), and was initially defined as denoting a stimulus, which takes a salient position in the formation of a category, due to the fact that it is the first stimulus to be associated with that category. Categories In her 1975 paper, Cognitive Representation of Semantic Categories (J Experimental Psychology v. 104:192-233), Eleanor Rosch asked 200 American college students to rate, on a scale of 1 to 7, whether they regarded the following items as a good example of the category furniture. 1. 2. 3.
How to improve your Critical Thinking skills: Interview with Dr. Gerald Nosich – Life Lessons In this article I interview an expert on Critical Thinking, Dr. Gerald Nosich from the Foundation for Critical Thinking, who has been teaching Critical Thinking since 1977 to find out how we can improve our Critical Thinking skills. In this article you will learn: Let’s start at the beginning… Michael: What is Critical thinking? Dr. One it’s reflective. So if I’m making a decision I can ask myself : “What assumptions am I making about this?” Or I can ask myself about the implications: “Well, if I make this decision, what’s likely to happen?” “And if I make this other decision, what’s likely to happen?” Notice I’m not just thinking about the decision I have to make, but I’m also reflecting on how I’m going about making the decision, that is I’m reflecting on my thinking about the decision. Now reflectiveness is a major part of critical thinking, but reflective all by itself does not make something “critical thinking”. Dr. “What assumptions am I making about how my child is doing in school?” Dr.
Jung’s Tower: simplicity and the inner life – The First Gate Jung’s Tower House, Bollingen, Switzerland by Andrew Taylor, 2009. CC BY-SA-2.0 Recent news of technological incursions into consciousness itself (virtual reality and altered memories); almost daily revelations about NSA spying; suggestions that social media “isolates people from reality;” it’s enough to make you want to unplug all the gadgets – at least for a while! Renowned psychologist, Carl Jung (1875-1961) did just that, for months at a time, in a tower-house complex he started building in 1923 and continued to work on for the rest of his life. He often spent months each year living as simply as possible, without electricity or running water. It’s easy to think he lived in a simpler time and couldn’t have imagined modern complexity, but consider these words he wrote in his autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, published in 1961, the year he died: “We rush impetuously into novelty, driven by a mounting sense of insufficiency, dissatisfaction, and restlessness. Phase II, 1927.