Testing Turing’s theory of morphogenesis in chemical cells Author Affiliations Edited by Tom C. Lubensky, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, and approved January 29, 2014 (received for review November 25, 2013) A correction has been published Significance Turing proposed that intercellular reaction-diffusion of molecules is responsible for morphogenesis. Abstract Alan Turing, in “The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis” [Turing AM (1952) Philos Trans R Soc Lond 237(641):37–72], described how, in circular arrays of identical biological cells, diffusion can interact with chemical reactions to generate up to six periodic spatiotemporal chemical structures. Footnotes Author contributions: N.T., N.L., C.G., M.H., I.R.E., and S.F. designed research; N.T., N.L., C.G., G.B.E., and S.F. performed research; N.T., N.L., C.G., M.H., and S.F. analyzed data; and N.T., G.B.E., I.R.E., and S.F. wrote the paper.
History of evolutionary thought Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity, in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science. With the beginnings of biological taxonomy in the late 17th century, Western biological thinking was influenced by two opposed ideas. One was essentialism, the belief that every species has essential characteristics that are unalterable, a concept which had developed from medieval Aristotelian metaphysics, and that fit well with natural theology. The other one was the development of the new anti-Aristotelian approach to modern science: as the Enlightenment progressed, evolutionary cosmology and the mechanical philosophy spread from the physical sciences to natural history. Following the establishment of evolutionary biology, studies of mutation and variation in natural populations, combined with biogeography and systematics, led to sophisticated mathematical and causal models of evolution.
Edheads - Activate Your Mind! Environmental Sciences Europe 2014, 26:14 Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize This report describes the first long-term (2-year) rodent (rat) feeding studyinvestigating possible toxic effects arising from consumption of an R-tolerant GM maize(NK603) and a complete commercial formulation of R herbicide. The aims of thisinvestigation were essentially twofold. First, to evaluate whether the signs oftoxicity, especially with respect to liver and kidney functions, seen after 90 days'consumption of a diet containing NK603 R-tolerant GM maize [3, 7] escalated into serious ill health or dissipated over an extended period oftime. Second, to determine if low doses of full commercial R formulation at permittedlevels were still toxic, as indicated by our previous in vitro studies [8, 9]. The previous toxicity study with NK603 maize employed only this GM crop thathad been sprayed with R during cultivation . What is also evident from our data is that ill effects were not proportional to the doseof either the NK603 GM maize ± R or R alone.
Evolution Here then is the beta version of my strip about evolution. This is a chapter of the book Science Stories which will be out from Myriad Editions next spring. I'm sure there'll be mistakes here, so do feel free to point them out, so that I can make the necessary changes. Note Oct 2013.
Shock study, replicates Milgram's findings Nearly 50 years after the controversial Milgram experiments, social psychologist Jerry M. Burger, PhD, has found that people are still just as willing to administer what they believe are painful electric shocks to others when urged on by an authority figure. Burger, a professor at Santa Clara University, replicated one of the famous obedience experiments of the late Stanley Milgram, PhD, and found that compliance rates in the replication were only slightly lower than those found by Milgram. And, like Milgram, he found no difference in the rates of obedience between men and women. "People learning about Milgram's work often wonder whether results would be any different today," Burger says. "Many point to the lessons of the Holocaust and argue that there is greater societal awareness of the dangers of blind obedience. —K.I.
SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 03/09/18 Comments on two recent publications on GM maize and Roundup Two studies recently published in Scientific Reports1,2 contain a number of questionable issues related to the experimental design and the interpretation of the obtained data. We here point these out and discuss why caution about the far-reaching conclusions presented in the two studies is necessary. The first study (here called the “GM maize report”) claims that genetic transformation process caused metabolic disturbances in genetically modified (GM) NK603 Roundup-tolerant maize, questioning the compositional similarity of this cultivar to a non-GM control cultivar1. The GM maize report does not provide evidence in support of the claim that the transformation process has caused the observed metabolic differences. Both reports claim disproportionate biological implications based on the presented -omics data. Both GM crops and glyphosate are currently subjects of political discussion in the European Union.
SVT Glycémie Walking Through Doorways Causes Forgetting We’ve all experienced it: The frustration of entering a room and forgetting what we were going to do. Or get. Or find. New research from University of Notre Dame Psychology Professor Gabriel Radvansky suggests that passing through doorways is the cause of these memory lapses. “Entering or exiting through a doorway serves as an ‘event boundary’ in the mind, which separates episodes of activity and files them away,” Radvansky explains. “Recalling the decision or activity that was made in a different room is difficult because it has been compartmentalized.” The study was published recently in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. Conducting three experiments in both real and virtual environments, Radvansky’s subjects—all college students—performed memory tasks while crossing a room and while exiting a doorway. Learn More >
Weed Technology 23(2):243-246. 2009 Herbicide Options for Controlling Glyphosate-Tolerant Corn in a Corn Replant Situation *Associate Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, Jackson, TN 38301. Corresponding author's E-mail: email@example.com Abstract In the spring of 2007, a widespread freeze occurred that led to the replanting of about 81,000 hectares of corn in Tennessee. Limited research was available on effective herbicide options to control failed stands of glyphosate-tolerant corn where replanting to corn was desired. Nomenclature: Glyphosate; corn, Zea mays L. Received: October 16, 2008; Accepted: March 10, 2009 Sources of Materials 1Glufosinate, Ignite, Bayer CropScience LP, Box 12014, 2 TW Alexander Drive Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. 2Herculex gene, Dow Chemical Company, 2030 Dow Center, Midland, MI 48674. 3Nonionic surfactant, Tennessee Farmers Co-op, 200 Waldron Road, Box 243, LaVergne, TN 37086–1983. 480015VS Teejet spray nozzles, Spraying Systems Co., North Avenue, Wheaton, IL 60189. Literature Cited Andrade, F. Anonymous, 2008a. Tye C.
Stanford Prison Exp What happened in the basement of the psych building 40 years ago shocked the world. How do the guards, prisoners and researchers in the Stanford Prison Experiment feel about it now? It began with an ad in the classifieds. Male college students needed for psychological study of prison life. $15 per day for 1-2 weeks. More than 70 people volunteered to take part in the study, to be conducted in a fake prison housed inside Jordan Hall, on Stanford's Main Quad. The leader of the study was 38-year-old psychology professor Philip Zimbardo. Zimbardo encouraged the guards to think of themselves as actual guards in a real prison. The study began on Sunday, August 17, 1971. Forty years later, the Stanford Prison Experiment remains among the most notable—and notorious—research projects ever carried out at the University. In 1973, an investigation by the American Psychological Association concluded that the prison study had satisfied the profession's existing ethical standards. Zimbardo. Maslach.
How Netflix Reverse Engineered Hollywood - Alexis C. Madrigal If you use Netflix, you've probably wondered about the specific genres that it suggests to you. Some of them just seem so specific that it's absurd. Emotional Fight-the-System Documentaries? Period Pieces About Royalty Based on Real Life? Foreign Satanic Stories from the 1980s? If Netflix can show such tiny slices of cinema to any given user, and they have 40 million users, how vast did their set of "personalized genres" need to be to describe the entire Hollywood universe? This idle wonder turned to rabid fascination when I realized that I could capture each and every microgenre that Netflix's algorithm has ever created. Through a combination of elbow grease and spam-level repetition, we discovered that Netflix possesses not several hundred genres, or even several thousand, but 76,897 unique ways to describe types of movies. There are so many that just loading, copying, and pasting all of them took the little script I wrote more than 20 hours. Imaginary movies for an imaginary genre.
Improbable research: The Limerick laureate works his magic In 2003, an independent scholar from New Jersey began submitting limericks for a competition in mini-AIR, the monthly online supplement to my magazine, Annals of Improbable Research. The contest challenges readers to read an off-putting scholarly citation, and explain it in limerick form. Martin Eiger so consistently won that we eventually banned him as an unfair competitor, gave him the title Limerick laureate, and now publish him every month. He handles a huge range of subject matter. An early Eiger limerick summarised a Japanese study called Pharmacological Aspects of Ipecac Syrup (TJN-119) - Induced Emesis in Ferrets: If you're hoping to hash out a thesis,And stuck for a topic: emesis,As triggered in ferretsUndoubtedly meritsMuch more than a mere exegesis. Warwick University mathematician Jonathan Warren's 1999 treatise On the Joining of Sticky Brownian Motion includes a three-page proof of the Non-cosiness of Sticky Brownian Motion.