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CERN

CERN
For the company with the ticker symbol CERN, see Cerner. For the rocket nozzle, see SERN. Coordinates: The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (/ˈsɜrn/; French pronunciation: ​[sɛʁn]; derived from "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire"; see History) is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border, ( WikiMiniAtlas 46°14′3″N 6°3′19″E / 46.23417°N 6.05528°E / 46.23417; 6.05528) and has 21 European member states. The term CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2013 counted 2,513 staff members, and hosted some 12,313 fellows, associates, apprentices as well as visiting scientists and engineers[4] representing 608 universities and research facilities and 113 nationalities. CERN is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web. Related:  Wikipedia AUnsorted R&D

ATLAS experiment Coordinates: 46°14′8″N 6°3′19″E / 46.23556°N 6.05528°E / 46.23556; 6.05528 ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus)[1] is one of the seven particle detector experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, LHCb, LHCf and MoEDAL) constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland. The experiment is designed to take advantage of the unprecedented energy available at the LHC and observe phenomena that involve highly massive particles which were not observable using earlier lower-energy accelerators. ATLAS is 46 metres long, 25 metres in diameter, and weighs about 7,000 tonnes; it contains some 3000 km of cable.[2] The experiment is a collaboration involving roughly 3,000 physicists from over 175 institutions in 38 countries.[3] The project was led for the first 15 years by Peter Jenni and between 2009 and 2013 was headed by Fabiola Gianotti. History[edit] ATLAS logo Background[edit] Physics Program[edit]

CERN Podcast SeaOrbiter The SeaOrbiter, also known as Sea Orbiter (two words), is an ocean going research vessel. Construction is to begin in late 2013.[1][2] Similar to a space ship, the SeaOrbiter is planned to allow scientists and others a residential yet mobile research station positioned under the oceans' surface. The station will have laboratories, workshops, living quarters and a pressurized deck to support divers and submarines.[3][4] SeaOrbiter is a project of the "Floating oceanographic laboratory" organisation. Description[edit] The laboratory is semi-submersible ocean going craft and weighs 1000 tons. It is designed to float vertically and drift with the ocean currents but has two small propellers allowing it to modify its trajectory and maneuver in confined waters. Its vertical alignment in the sea will leave a small part visible above the surface with much larger accommodation and laboratories below the sea's surface. Visible part[edit] Submerged part[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Offshore financial centre German assets in tax havens in relation to the total German GDP.[1] Havens in countries with tax information sharing allowing for compliance enforcement have been in decline. The "Big 7" shown are Hong Kong, Ireland, Lebanon, Liberia, Panama, Singapore, and Switzerland. An offshore financial centre (OFC), though not precisely defined, is usually a small, low-tax jurisdiction specializing in providing corporate and commercial services to non-resident offshore companies, and for the investment of offshore funds.[2] The term was coined in the 1980s.[3] Academics Rose & Spiegel,[4] Société Générale,[5] and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)[6] consider offshore centres to include all economies with financial sectors disproportionate to their resident population: An OFC is a country or jurisdiction that provides financial services to nonresidents on a scale that is incommensurate with the size and the financing of its domestic economy.—Ahmed Zoromé, IMF Working Paper/07/87[7] Scrutiny[edit]

Inertial frame of reference All inertial frames are in a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another; an accelerometer moving with any of them would detect zero acceleration. Measurements in one inertial frame can be converted to measurements in another by a simple transformation (the Galilean transformation in Newtonian physics and the Lorentz transformation in special relativity). In general relativity, in any region small enough for the curvature of spacetime to be negligible, one can find a set of inertial frames that approximately describe that region.[2][3] Physical laws take the same form in all inertial frames.[4] By contrast, in a non-inertial reference frame the laws of physics vary depending on the acceleration of that frame with respect to an inertial frame, and the usual physical forces must be supplemented by fictitious forces.[5][6] For example, a ball dropped towards the ground does not go exactly straight down because the Earth is rotating. Introduction[edit] Background[edit]

James Dyson takes on Google with £5m investment in domestic robots | Technology Sir James Dyson is taking on the might of Google by investing £5m in a British university to develop a new generation of "intelligent domestic robots". His company, best known for its vacuum cleaners, is putting the money into a laboratory at Imperial College London, which has begun hiring up to 15 scientists who will work on developing robot vision systems that could be used in devices such as robot-controlled vacuums – a longstanding ambition of Dyson himself. The inventor said the plan was to create "practical everyday technologies that will make our lives easier". The move could put Dyson into a position where it is directly challenging Google, which has recently acquired eight robotics companies, including Boston Dynamics, which has made self-controlling robots for the US military. Dyson was critical of the decision by the two-year-old company to sell itself. Dyson established his company in 1985, and it now employs over 5,000 people worldwide and had a turnover of £1.1bn in 2012.

Holy Roman Empire The empire grew out of East Francia, a primary division of the Frankish Empire. Pope Leo III crowned Frankish king Charlemagne as emperor on Christmas 800, restoring the title in the West after more than three centuries. After Charlemagne died, the title passed in a desultory manner during the decline and fragmentation of the Carolingian dynasty, eventually falling into abeyance.[6] The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne[7] and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.[6][8][9] Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire,[10][11] while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning.[12][13] Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles comprising the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role.[4][10] Name[edit] History[edit] Carolingian forerunners[edit]

Cymatics Resonance made visible with black seeds on a harpsichord soundboard Cornstarch and water solution under the influence of sine wave vibration Cymatics (from Greek: κῦμα "wave") is the study of visible sound co vibration, a subset of modal phenomena. Typically the surface of a plate, diaphragm, or membrane is vibrated, and regions of maximum and minimum displacement are made visible in a thin coating of particles, paste, or liquid.[1] Different patterns emerge in the excitatory medium depending on the geometry of the plate and the driving frequency. The apparatus employed can be simple, such as the old Chinese spouting bowl, or Chinese singing fountain, in which copper handles are rubbed and cause the copper bottom elements to vibrate.[citation needed] Other examples include the Chladni Plate[2] and the CymaScope. Etymology[edit] History[edit] On July 8, 1680, Robert Hooke was able to see the nodal patterns associated with the modes of vibration of glass plates. Influences in art[edit]

Knowledge Corridor A view of Hartford as seen from East Hartford. A portion of Springfield's skyline, as seen from the west side of the Connecticut River. The Knowledge Corridor is term for the area comprising north-central Connecticut and the south-central Connecticut River Valley in Western Massachusetts[1] (also known as Hartford-Springfield or the Hartford-Springfield Metropolitan Area). The two cities' urban cores lie only 23.9 miles (38.5 km) apart; however, Hartford's and Springfield's efforts to cooperate have long been hampered by state border issues, beginning with a lawsuit in 1638.[6] Hartford's Bradley International Airport is the closest airport, which sits equidistant between them in Windsor Locks, Connecticut.[7] The Hartford-Springfield Knowledge Corridor Partnership was formalized by regional civic, business, and education leaders in 2000 [8] at the Big E in West Springfield. History[edit] Complementary strengths[edit] Economy[edit] The Aetna headquarters in Hartford Notable companies[edit]

Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea (1952), Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill health for much of his remaining life. Life Early life Hemingway was the second child and first son born to Clarence and Grace Hemingway. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago.[1] His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall-Hemingway, was a musician. World War I Paris

Is the universe a doughnut? Credit: iStockphoto Someday spacecraft will be powerful enough perhaps to journey at extraordinary speeds, spanning the vast interstellar voids. Our technology might develop until we become a vast, powerful intergalactic society, capable of resolving the deepest quandaries ever known. Only then could we definitely answer what is perhaps the ultimate question: “Is the universe shaped like a doughnut?” This last question pertains to an idea attributed to Homer and mentioned by guest star Stephen Hawking in an episode of The Simpsons. “We were looking for someone much smarter than all the Mensa members, and so we naturally thought of him,” says the cartoon’s executive producer Al Jean, explaining his decision to invite Hawking on the show. In the episode, Hawking arrives just in time to see the ensuing mayhem, and escapes with Lisa in tow, using a flying device attached to his wheelchair. IN MATHEMATICS, A DOUGHNUT SHAPE is known as a torus, the three-dimensional generalisation of a ring.

Research Triangle Coordinates: Location of the Raleigh–Durham–Cary CSA and its components: Durham–Chapel Hill Metropolitan Statistical Area Raleigh–Cary Metropolitan Statistical Area Dunn Micropolitan Statistical Area The "Triangle" name was cemented in the public consciousness in the 1950s with the creation of Research Triangle Park, home to numerous high-tech companies and enterprises. Counties[edit] Counties contained in the Research Triangle. Three core counties: Wake, Durham, Orange Additional counties included in Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, per the U.S. Other counties sometimes included in the Research Triangle descriptions Depending on which definition of the Research Triangle region is used, as few as three or as many as 13 counties are included as part of the region. * - Most restrictive definition, including only the main counties of Wake, Durham, and Orange.[3] ‡ - U.S. Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area Population (Census Estimates 2012) 2,037,430

German Resistance to Nazism The German Resistance (Widerstand) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945. Some of these engaged in active plans to remove Adolf Hitler from power and overthrow his regime. The term German resistance should not be understood as meaning that there was a united resistance movement in Germany at any time during the Nazi period,[1] analogous to the more coordinated Polish Underground State, Yugoslav Partisans, French Resistance, and Italian Resistance. The German resistance consisted of small and usually isolated groups. They were unable to mobilize political opposition. Introduction[edit] The German Resistance movement consisted of several disparate political and ideological strands, which represented different classes of German society and were seldom able to work together – indeed for much of the period there was little or no contact between the different strands of resistance. Pre-war resistance 1933–39[edit]

Science videos The Elegant Universe: Part 3 PBS Airdate: November 4, 2003 NARRATOR: Now, on NOVA, take a thrill ride into a world stranger than science fiction, where you play the game by breaking some rules, where a new view of the universe pushes you beyond the limits of your wildest imagination. This is the world of "string theory," a way of describing every force and all matter from an atom to earth, to the end of the galaxies—from the birth of time to its final tick, in a single theory, a "Theory of Everything." Our guide to this brave new world is Brian Greene, the bestselling author and physicist. BRIAN GREENE (Columbia University): And no matter how many times I come here, I never seem to get used to it. NARRATOR: Can he help us solve the greatest puzzle of modern physics—that our understanding of the universe is based on two sets of laws that don't agree? NARRATOR: Resolving that contradiction eluded even Einstein, who made it his final quest. S. BRIAN GREENE:The atmosphere was electric. S. S.

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