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The History of Fingerprints

The History of Fingerprints
Fingerprints offer a reliable means of personal identification. That is the essential explanation for fingerprints having replaced other methods of establishing the identities of persons reluctant to admit previous arrests. 1 The science of fingerprint identification 5 stands out among all other forensic sciences for many reasons, including the following: Other visible human characteristics, such as facial features, tend to change considerably with age, but fingerprints are relatively persistent. Barring injuries or surgery causing deep scarring, or diseases such as leprosy damaging the formative layers of friction ridge skin, finger and palm print features have never been shown to move about or change their unit relationship throughout the life of a person (and injuries, scarring and diseases tend to exhibit telltale indicators of unnatural change). In earlier civilizations, branding or maiming were used to mark persons as criminals. AD 1400s - Persia 1600s 1685 - Bidloo 1788 - Mayer Dr. Related:  forensic science

Crime scene A crime scene is a location where a crime took place (or another location where evidence of the crime may be found), and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by law enforcement personnel, crime scene investigators (CSIs) or in rare circumstances, forensic scientists. Crime scenes may or may not be where the crime was committed. There are different levels and types of crime scenes. Crime scene preservation[edit] A perimeter is taped off with barricade tape in order to keep only those necessary on site. This is done to prevent Contaminated Evidence. Documentation[edit] Photographs of all evidence are taken before anything is touched, moved, or otherwise further investigated. Evidence collection[edit] Evidence is collected through two ways: forensics and interviews. Types of crime scenes[edit] Different types of crime scenes include outdoors, indoor, and conveyance. Reconstruction[edit] See also[edit] External links[edit]

CSI effect The CSI effect, also known as the CSI syndrome[1] and the CSI infection,[2] is any of several ways in which the exaggerated portrayal of forensic science on crime television shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation influences public perception. The term most often refers to the belief that jurors have come to demand more forensic evidence in criminal trials, thereby raising the effective standard of proof for prosecutors. While this belief is widely held among American legal professionals, some studies have suggested that crime shows are unlikely to cause such an effect, although frequent CSI viewers may place a lower value on circumstantial evidence.[3] As technology improves and becomes more prevalent throughout society, people may also develop higher expectations for the capabilities of forensic technology.[4] There are several other manifestations of the CSI effect. Background[edit] Several aspects of popular crime shows have been criticized as being unrealistic. Trials[edit]

CSI: THE EXPERIENCE - Press / Media, Exhibit Walk-Through Exhibit Walk-Through When you visit CSI: The Experience, you first enter a Briefing Theater to watch a fast-paced introduction on a giant flat-screen TV. None other than Anthony E. Finally, CSI's lead investigator, Gil Grissom, steps in and introduces himself as your CSI supervisor. You then begin an intriguing journey to solve a crime mystery by entering one of three very different crime scenes: The Crime Scenes In "A House Collided" a car has run through the living room window of a house in a quiet suburb. In "Who Got Served?" In "No Bones About It!" Beginning the Investigation After exiting the crime scenes, you'll refer to a large wall of crime scene photos and clues you may have missed then begin to analyze evidence in two highly interactive lab areas, each featuring multiple stations that allow for various evidence testing. For "Who Got Served?" Cracking the Case Here lies the moment of truth.

CSI: THE EXPERIENCE — Web Adventures Attention all teachers, students, or even just the curious--we have a variety of fun, interesting, and education activites free for the download. Click here to see how bone length can be used to calculate height, create your own bill for forensic testing, or solve forensic logic problems--and more! Looking for some fun forensic activites to do at home? From blood spatter analysis to DNA extractions, we've got fun (yet safe) activites for all ages. Check it out! Check here for a collection of new activites guaranteed to put your forensic skills to the test. Looking for even more information on forensic science and criminalists?

Armadillidium vulgare Armadillidium vulgare are omnivorous organisms that have been found to eat a wide variety of matter. They are known to eat dead plant matter, but also will occasionally eat leaves of plants that are clinging to life. Additionally, the organism consumes carcasses of dead invertebrates, larger organisms in various states of decomposition, and on rare occasions, they even consume individuals of their own species (Paris 1963). Most importantly, however, is that A.vulgare serves as a decomposer that aids in cycling of nutrients (add link to nutrient cycle) within an ecosystem. A.vulgure can also play a different role in the cycling of nutrients in an ecosystem as prey. In addition to the predator/prey relationship formed between A. vulgare and other species, the organism has commonly been found to be a host to parasites known as Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus (Nickol and Dappen 1982). P.cylindraceus also has a parasitic relationship with a variety of different birds, including the robin.

Bernard Spilsbury Sir Bernard Henry Spilsbury (16 May 1877 – 17 December 1947) was a British pathologist. His cases include Hawley Harvey Crippen, the Seddon case and Major Armstrong poisonings, the "Brides in the Bath" murders by George Joseph Smith, Louis Voisin, Jean-Pierre Vaquier, the Crumbles murders, Norman Thorne, Donald Merrett, the Podmore case, the Sidney Harry Fox matricide, Alfred Rouse, Elvira Barney, Tony Mancini and the Vera Page case. He also played a crucial role in the development of Operation Mincemeat, a deception operation during World War II which saved thousands of lives of Allied service personnel. Personal life[edit] Spilsbury was born on 16 May 1877 at 35 Bath Street, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. On 3 September 1908, Spilsbury married Edith Caroline Horton. The deaths (of Peter, in particular) were a blow from which Spilsbury never truly recovered. Career[edit] Important cases[edit] Scar tissue used in evidence at the Crippen trial, alleged to be that of Cora Crippen. Legacy[edit]

Forensic entomological decomposition Medicolegal entomology is a branch of forensic entomology that applies the study of insects to criminal investigations, and is commonly used in death investigations for estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI).[1][2] One method of obtaining this estimate uses the time and pattern of arthropod colonization.[3] This method will provide an estimation of the period of insect activity, which may or may not correlate exactly with the time of death.[1] While insect successional data may not provide as accurate an estimate during the early stages of decomposition as developmental data, it is applicable for later decompositional stages and can be accurate for periods up to a few years.[4] Decomposition[edit] A decaying carcass provides "a temporarily, rapidly changing resource which supports a large, dynamic arthropod community." --M. Grassberger and C. Frank Fresh Stage[edit] Pig carcass in the fresh stage of decomposition Adult ants may also be seen at a carcass during the fresh stage. Access

The Labyrinth of Human Remains: The Dead Body in Public Display   | Science Skepsis As a ‘museumoholic’, I find museums one of the best places to visit. Having visited many museums and exhibits around the world, I’ve always being fascinated by the history behind each exhibit – a tool of an ancient farmer or an old medical device. A few weeks ago I visited ‘Body Worlds’, the exhibition of real human bodies, which took place in Newcastle, UK, at the Life Science Centre. On the way back to my hotel I was thinking that this was indeed an intriguing way to explore the history, philosophy and science of human anatomy; but should we exhibit the human body or human body remains? We all agree that museum exhibits are vital components in the construction of knowledge. In many archaeological museums, among other exhibits, there are displays of human bodies. However, there is still controversy regarding the display of the human body in museums. The display of a human body appeals to many visitors who expect to find them in museums. Further Information:

Yasser Arafat died of natural causes and not radiation poisoning By Jonny Paul Published: 11:00 GMT, 26 December 2013 | Updated: 18:05 GMT, 26 December 2013 Russian experts found that Yasser Arafat had died of natural causes and not radiation poisoning Former Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat died of natural causes, not radiation poisoning, the head of a Russian state forensics agency said today. The Russian finding comes after French scientists concluded earlier this month that Arafat, who died in 2004, had not been killed with radioactive polonium. ‘Yasser Arafat died not from the effects of radiation but of natural causes,’ Vladimir Uiba, head of Federal Medical and Biological Agency, a government body that had tested samples taken from Arafat’s body. Arafat, who signed the 1993 Oslo interim peace accords with Israel but then led an uprising against the Jewish state in 2000, died age 75 in a French hospital four weeks after falling ill in his Ramallah headquarters. Palestinians have long suspected Israel of poisoning him, which Israel strongly denies.

The Science Behind Firearm and Tool Mark Examination by Nancy Ritter Study finds less than 1.2 percent error rate in matching bullets fired from Glock semiautomatic pistol barrels to the actual firearm. The NIJ-funded study described in "Study Identifies Ways to Improve ATF Ballistic Evidence Program" looked at the operation of the National Integrated Ballistic Information Network (NIBIN), not at the underlying science of firearm and tool mark examination. This forensic science — sometimes referred to by laypeople as "ballistics" — is concerned with the validity of matching a fired bullet to a particular firearm. So what is the current state of the science of firearm and tool mark examinations? Are these examinations accurate, reliable and valid? First, the basics: Firearms have numerous metal parts. The study — a collaboration between a Florida International University statistician and the Miami-Dade Police Department, which has been studying Glock barrels since 1994 — was designed to answer two basic questions: The Findings About the Author

Firearms/Tool Mark Examination Firearms Identification Firearm identification deals with the comparison analysis of projectiles and cartridge cases found at crime scenes to submitted suspect firearms. The basis of firearm identification is in the microscopic individual characteristics caused during the manufacturing process. Additional imperfections may arise from use, abuse, wear, and corrosion. These imperfections caused by manufacture or over time are what make the tool surfaces in firearms unique. Firearm Image Database Currently the firearms and tool mark identification community has a database operating system used to image fired cartridge components called the NIBIN (National Integrated Ballistics Information Network) database. Tool Mark Identification Tool mark identification determines if a tool mark left at a crime scene was produced by a particular suspect tool. Standards and Best Practices: AFTE Certification Program:

Forensic Tools: What’s Reliable and What’s Not-So-Scientific | The Real CSI For years, American TV shows have featured crime scene investigators using forensic evidence to solve grim murders. Often, however, these fictional CSIs present unrealistic portrayals of the capabilities of forensic science. The reality is that not all forensic evidence is backed up by rigorous scientific research – meaning it doesn’t always point to the person who “did it.” A landmark 2009 study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) highlighted the tools that work – and those that fall short. Here’s a sampling of the basics: DNA Analysis is the Gold Standard In 1984, a British geneticist named Alec Jeffreys stumbled upon one of our most important forensic tools: DNA fingerprinting. Today, the testing and analysis of DNA is considered the most reliable of all of the forensic tools. In fact, DNA has actually called into question the reliability of other forensic sciences, says Innocence Project co-founder Peter Neufeld. Fingerprints Can Lie Sometimes Bite Marks Bite Back The problem?