Ishikawa diagram Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams, herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, or Fishikawa) are causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific event. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. Tinbergen's four questions Tinbergen's four questions, named after Nikolaas Tinbergen, are complementary categories of explanations for behaviour. It suggests that an integrative understanding of behaviour must include both a proximate and ultimate (functional) analysis of behaviour, as well as an understanding of both phylogenetic/developmental history and the operation of current mechanisms.  Four categories of questions and explanations
Cause Mapping Basics Root Cause Analysis Root cause analysis is an approach for identifying the underlying causes of why an incident occurred so that the most effective solutions can be identified and implemented. It's typically used when something goes badly, but can also be used when something goes well. Within an organization, problem solving, incident investigation and root cause analysis are all fundamentally connected by three basic questions: What's the problem? Create fishbone diagrams with the XMind open-source tool After trying several mind mapping tools for building fishbone diagrams, Andy Makar recommends using XMind during your next IT project brainstorming session. The fishbone diagram was created by Kaoru Ishikawa in the 1960s and has become a useful tool in quality management. The fishbone diagram, also known as an Ishikawa diagram or a Cause and Effect Diagram, gets its name because it represents a fish skeleton (Figure A). Figure A Fishbone diagram. (Click the image to enlarge.)
Von Restorff effect The Von Restorff effect (named after psychiatrist and children's paediatrician Hedwig von Restorff 1906–1962), also called the isolation effect, predicts that an item that "stands out like a sore thumb" (called distinctive encoding) is more likely to be remembered than other items. A bias in favour of remembering the unusual. Modern theory of the isolation effect emphasizes perceptual salience and accompanying differential attention to the isolated item as necessary for enhanced memory. In fact, von Restorff, whose paper is not available in English, presented evidence that perceptual salience is not necessary for the isolation effect. She further argued that the difference between the isolated and surrounding items is not sufficient to produce isolation effects but must be considered in the context of similarity.
Category:Project management From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Subcategories This category has the following 17 subcategories, out of 17 total. Pages in category "Project management" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 283 total. Four discourses The French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan argued that there were four fundamental types of discourse. He defined four discourses, which he called Master, University, Hysteric and Analyst, and showed how these relate dynamically to one another. Discourse of the Master - Struggle for mastery / domination / penetration. Based on Hegel's Master-slave dialecticDiscourse of the University - Provision and worship of "objective" knowledge - usually in the unacknowledged service of some external master discourse.Discourse of the Hysteric - Symptoms embodying and revealing resistance to the prevailing master discourse.Discourse of the Analyst - Deliberate subversion of the prevailing master discourse. Lacan's theory of the four discourses was initially developed in 1969, perhaps in response to the events of May 1968 in France, but also through his discovery of deficiencies in the orthodox reading of the Oedipus Complex.
5 Whys - Problem Solving Skills from MindTools Quickly Getting to the Root of a Problem How to use the 5 Whys technique, with James Manktelow & Amy Carlson. The 5 Whys is a simple problem-solving technique that helps you to get to the root of a problem quickly. Made popular in the 1970s by the Toyota Production System, the 5 Whys strategy involves looking at any problem and asking: "Why?" and "What caused this problem?" Features Gephi is a tool for data analysts and scientists keen to explore and understand graphs. Like Photoshop™ but for graph data, the user interacts with the representation, manipulate the structures, shapes and colors to reveal hidden patterns. The goal is to help data analysts to make hypothesis, intuitively discover patterns, isolate structure singularities or faults during data sourcing. It is a complementary tool to traditional statistics, as visual thinking with interactive interfaces is now recognized to facilitate reasoning.
List of memory biases In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory. There are many different types of memory biases, including: See also  ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Schacter, Daniel L. (1999). "The Seven Sins of Memory: Insights From Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience".