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Jiddu Krishnamurti

Jiddu Krishnamurti
He claimed allegiance to no nationality, caste, religion, or philosophy, and spent the rest of his life travelling the world, speaking to large and small groups and individuals. He wrote many books, among them The First and Last Freedom, The Only Revolution, and Krishnamurti's Notebook. Many of his talks and discussions have been published. His last public talk was in Madras, India, in January 1986, a month before his death at his home in Ojai, California. His supporters, working through non-profit foundations in India, Great Britain and the United States, oversee several independent schools based on his views on education. Biography[edit] Family background and childhood[edit] In 1903, the family settled in Cudappah, where Krishnamurti had contracted malaria during a previous stay. Discovered[edit] In her biography of Krishnamurti, Pupul Jayakar quotes him speaking of that period in his life some 75 years later: "The boy had always said, 'I will do whatever you want'. Growing up[edit] Related:  Spirituality

Pineal gland The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of sleep patterns in the circadian rhythms and seasonal functions.[1][2] Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located in the epithalamus, near the centre of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The gland has been compared to the photoreceptive, so-called third parietal eye present in the epithalamus of some animal species, which is also called the pineal eye. Structure[edit] The pineal gland is reddish-gray and about the size of a grain of rice (5–8 mm) in humans, located just rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus and behind and beneath the stria medullaris, between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies. Blood supply[edit]

Bhagavad Gita The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit: भगवद्गीता, bhagavad-gītā in IAST, Sanskrit pronunciation: [ˈbʱəɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː]; lit. "Song of the Lord"), referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna. Facing the duty as a warrior to fight the Dharma Yudhha or righteous war between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is counselled by Krishna to "fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty as a warrior and establishing Dharma." Inserted in this appeal to kshatriya dharma (chivalry) is "a dialogue [...] between diverging attitudes concerning and methods toward the attainment of liberation (moksha)". The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of the Brahmanical concept of Dharma, theistic bhakti, the yogic ideals of moksha through jnana, bhakti, karma, and Raja Yoga (spoken of in the 6th chapter). and Samkhya philosophy. Status[edit]

Gautama Buddha The word Buddha means "awakened one" or "the enlightened one". "Buddha" is also used as a title for the first awakened being in an era. In most Buddhist traditions, Siddhartha Gautama is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (Pali sammāsambuddha, Sanskrit samyaksaṃbuddha) of our age.[note 6] Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the Sramana (renunciation) movement common in his region. He later taught throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kośala. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Historical Siddhārtha Gautama[edit] Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of Buddha. Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. The times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Traditional biographies[edit]

Confucius Confucius (551–479 BC)[1] was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death. Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives. Names Within the Analects, he is often referred to simply as "the Master" (子 Zǐ). Background Biography Early life Lu can be seen in China's northeast Confucius was born into the class of shi (士), between the aristocracy and the common people. Political career Exile Return home Philosophy Ethics 廄焚。 Analects X.11 (tr. 己所不欲,勿施於人。

Kosha According to the Kosha system in Yogic philosophy, the nature of being human encompasses physical and psychological aspects that function as one holistic system. The Kosha system refers to these different aspects as layers of subjective experience. Layers range from the dense physical body to the more subtle levels of emotions, mind and spirit. Psychology refers to the emotional, mental and spiritual aspects of our being. Together, all aspects make up our subjective experience of being alive.[2] The five sheaths (pancha-kosas) are alluded to in the fifteenth verse of Shankara's ATMABODHA. Annamaya kosha, appearance due foodstuffs-sheath (Anna)Pranamaya kosha, appearance due energies-sheath (Prana/apana)Manomaya kosha appearance due mind-stuff-sheath (Manas)Vijnanamaya kosha, appearance due wisdom-sheath (Vijnana)Anandamaya kosha, appearance due bliss-sheath (Ananda) The five sheaths[edit] Annamaya kosha[edit] Pranamaya kosha[edit] Manomaya kosha[edit] Vijnanamaya kosha[edit] See also[edit]

Sadhana The historian N. Bhattacharyya provides a working definition of the benefits of sādhanā as follows: Iyengar (1993: p. 22) in his English translation of and commentary to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali defines sādhanā in relation to abhyāsa and kriyā: Sādhanā is a discipline undertaken in the pursuit of a goal. Paths[edit] Anthony de Mello, an Indian Jesuit priest and founder of the Sadhana Institute in Pune, India, wrote a book of Christian meditations with the title Sadhana: A way to God. Traditionally in some Hindu and Buddhist traditions in order to embark on a specific path of sādhanā, firstly a guru may be required to give the necessary instructions. Kinds[edit] Sakām sādhanā[edit] Niṣkām sādhanā[edit] Vyaṣṭi sādhanā[edit] This is niṣkām sādhanā done for one's own spiritual upliftment. Examples of vyaṣṭi sādhanā[edit] Benefits of vyaṣṭi sādhanā[edit] Spiritual ProgressIncrease in SātviktaIncreases Bhaava (Faith)Increases the talmal (desire for God)Lower level Anubhuti (spiritual experiences)

Anuttarayoga Tantra Anuttarayoga Tantra (Sanskrit, Tibetan: bla na med pa'i rgyud),[1] often translated as Unexcelled Yoga Tantra or Highest Yoga Tantra, is a term used in Tibetan Buddhism in the categorization of esoteric tantric Indian Buddhist texts that constitute part of the Kangyur, or the 'translated words of the Buddha' in the Tibetan Buddhist canon. In the classification of the Dzogchen system, used by the Nyingma, it is considered equivalent to the Mahayoga tantras.[3] The Dalai Lama XIV states: "old translation Dzogchen and new translation anuttarayoga tantra offer equivalent paths that can bring the practitioner to the same resultant state of Buddhahood".[4] Translation terminology[edit] Anuttarayoga Tantra literally means 'Unexcelled Union Continuity'. While the term is frequently translated as 'Highest Yoga Tantra' in English writings, this is not quite accurate. As scholar Isabelle Onians explains: "Yoginitantras are in the secondary literature often called Anuttarayoga. Father Tantras[edit]

Mandala Thangka painting of Manjuvajra Mandala The term is of Sanskrit origin. It appears in the Rig Veda as the name of the sections of the work, but is also used in other religions and philosophies, particularly Buddhism. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, for establishing a sacred space, and as an aid to meditation and trance induction. In common use, mandala has become a generic term for any diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically; a microcosm of the universe. Hinduism[edit] Religious meaning[edit] A yantra is a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, puja or meditative rituals. Many situate yantras as central focus points for Hindu tantric practice. Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived. Political meaning[edit] Buddhism[edit] Early and Theravada Buddhism[edit] Tibetan Vajrayana[edit] Practice[edit]

I maintain that truth is a pathless land, and you cannot approach it by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect. That is my point of view, and I adhere to that absolutely and unconditionally. Truth, being limitless, unconditioned, unapproachable by any path whatsoever, cannot be organized; nor should any organization be formed to lead or coerce people along a particular path. ... This is no magnificent deed, because I do not want followers, and I mean this. The moment you follow someone you cease to follow Truth. I am not concerned whether you pay attention to what I say or not. I want to do a certain thing in the world and I am going to do it with unwavering concentration. I am concerning myself with only one essential thing: to set man free. I desire to free him from all cages, from all fears, and not to found religions, new sects, nor to establish new theories and new philosophies. by chexpeare Jan 22

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