Carmina Burana The Wheel of Fortune from Carmina Burana Carmina Burana (/ˈkɑrmɨnə bʊˈrɑːnə/; Latin for "Songs from Beuern" ("Beuern" is short for Benediktbeuern) is the name given to a manuscript of 254 poems and dramatic texts mostly from the 11th or 12th century, although some are from the 13th century. The pieces are mostly bawdy, irreverent, and satirical. They were written principally in Medieval Latin; a few in Middle High German, and some with traces of Old French or Provençal. Some are macaronic, a mixture of Latin and German or French vernacular. They were written by students and clergy when the Latin idiom was the lingua franca across Italy and western Europe for travelling scholars, universities and theologians. The collection was found in 1803 in the Benedictine monastery of Benediktbeuern, Bavaria, and is now housed in the Bavarian State Library in Munich. Manuscript The Forest, from the Carmina Burana History Themes This outline, however, has many exceptions. Notes
Scientists have created the first ever porous liquid You're probably familiar with porous rocks – rocks that can hold and filter liquids – and now scientists from Queen's University in Belfast have created a synthetic liquid with similar properties. The newly developed substance has a huge range of potential uses, including being able to capture harmful carbon emissions to prevent them from entering the Earth's atmosphere. The porous liquid collects and absorbs gas through its pores, and researchers think it could open up new ways to collect and filter chemicals without relying on solid materials for the job: that obviously gives manufacturers and scientists much more flexibility. The substance is still under development but the academics from Queen's University, together with colleagues from across the world, are confident in the results they've seen so far. "Materials which contain permanent holes, or pores, are technologically important," explained Stuart James, one of the lead researchers.
German universities face funding fears as states scrap fees The German city state of Hamburg has abolished tuition fees at its universities, a pattern being repeated across Germany Photograph: Fabian Bimmer/AP The German university fee system is on the brink of collapse after another state confirmed it would abolish charges for students following a change in local government. The city of Hamburg – a state in its own right – will follow the lead of several other states that have scrapped fees since last month's elections saw Angela Merkel's Christian Democrats ousted by the centre-left Social Democrats. A spokesman for the Social Democrats said: "Tuition fees keep young people from low-income families from studying and are socially disruptive." North Rhine-Westphalia announced it would scrap fees earlier this month, and once Hamburg follows suit only three of Germany's federal states – Baden-Wüttemberg, Bavaria and Lower Saxony – will continue to charge. Fees would be very difficult to reintroduce, he added.
German Universities Excellence Initiative Map showing Germany's eleven elite "Universities of Excellence", in 2012 Since almost all German universities are public (most private universities do not have the official German "Universitätsstatus"), and therefore mainly paid by taxes and generally egalitarian, there is no German Ivy League of institutions of higher education. However, the Excellence Initiative aims to strengthen some selected universities more than others in order to raise their international visibility. 1st line of funding: The establishment of more than 40 research schools for young scientists and PhD candidates, which will receive one million euros each per year. 2nd line of funding: The creation of thirty so-called Clusters of Excellence, that connect universities with leading German research institutes and businesses. Altogether 2.7 billion euros (1.9 billion for 2007-2012) of additional funds will be distributed over the coming five years, most of this coming from the federal government. Results
Teddy Girls: The Style Subculture That Time Forgot On reflection, the paring of the aristocratic flamboyancy of an Edwardian gent with the rebellious attitude of American rock and roll shouldn't have worked – but it did. This sartorial hybrid, engineered by the Teddy Boys of the 1950s and later adopted by their feisty female counterpart, Teddy Girls (also known as Judies) – created a strangely alluring visual identity, one which set them apart from their contemporaries in a decade where youth culture was finally carving out an aesthetic of its own. Sharply-suited Teds (whose name derives from ‘Edwardian’) might look remarkably smart to a contemporary eye – particularly when positioned against fellow groups of teenagers, like the punks who threatened to puncture the fabric of society with their safety pins – but their reality was more rebellious than it initially seems. Working GirlsMost Teddy Girls left school at 14 or 15, taking secretarial jobs in London, or working in factories on the outskirts.
William Tyndale William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; c. 1494–1536) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. He is well known for his translation of the Bible into English. He was influenced by the work of Desiderius Erasmus, who made the Greek New Testament available in Europe, and by Martin Luther. While a number of partial and incomplete translations had been made from the seventh century onward, the grass-roots spread of Wycliffe's Bible resulted in a death sentence for any unlicensed possession of Scripture in English—even though translations in all other major European languages had been accomplished and made available. Tyndale's translation was the first English Bible to draw directly from Hebrew and Greek texts, the first English one to take advantage of the printing press, and first of the new English Bibles of the Reformation. Life At Oxford In Europe
John Tyndall John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th century physicist. His initial scientific fame arose in the 1850s from his study of diamagnetism. Later he made discoveries in the realms of infrared radiation and the physical properties of air. Tyndall also published more than a dozen science books which brought state-of-the-art 19th century experimental physics to a wide audience. From 1853 to 1887 he was professor of physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London. Early years and education Tyndall was born in Leighlinbridge, County Carlow, Ireland. In 1847 Tyndall opted to become a mathematics and surveying teacher at a boarding school in Hampshire. Early scientific work Main scientific work Beginning in the late 1850s, Tyndall studied the action of radiant energy on the constituents of air, and it led him onto several lines of inquiry, and his original research results included the following: Molecular physics of radiant heat
X Club The X Club was a dining club of nine men who supported the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th-century England. Thomas Henry Huxley was the initiator: he called the first meeting for 3 November 1864. The club met in London once a month—except in July, August and September—from November 1864 until March 1893, and its members are believed to have wielded much influence over scientific thought. The members of the club were George Busk, Edward Frankland, Thomas Archer Hirst, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Thomas Henry Huxley, John Lubbock, Herbert Spencer, William Spottiswoode, and John Tyndall, united by a "devotion to science, pure and free, untrammelled by religious dogmas According to its members, the club was originally started to keep friends from drifting apart, and to partake in scientific discussion free from theological influence. Background Social connections When the first dinner meeting commenced on 3 November 1864 at St. Dining clubs
Hylomorphism Hylomorphism is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form. The word "hylomorphism" is a 19th-century term formed from the Greek words ὕλη hyle, "wood, matter" and μορφή, morphē, "form." Matter and form Aristotle defines X's matter as "that out of which" X is made. For example, letters are the matter of syllables. Thus, "matter" is a relative term: an object counts as matter relative to something else. For example, clay is matter relative to a brick because a brick is made of clay, whereas bricks are matter relative to a brick house. Change is analyzed as a material transformation: matter is what undergoes a change of form. For example, consider a lump of bronze that's shaped into a statue. According to Aristotle's theory of perception, we perceive an object by receiving its form with our sense organs. Thus, forms include complex qualia such as colors, textures, and flavors, not just shapes.
Fitbit Announces Three New Wearables, Including a Fancy 'Super Watch' Fitbit Fitbit, one of the dominant players in today’s increasingly saturated fitness tracking space, today announced a trio of wearables of the wrist-worn variety. While the wearable space already has an overwhelming number of offerings, like the Garmin Vivosmart, the Misfit Flash, and Polar’s smart fitness watches, wearing something on your wrist is, as Apple emphasized in its Apple Watch hype, very personal. The new wristbands are the Fitbit Charge, the Charge HR, and the Surge. The Fitbit Charge ($130) is basically a next generation Fitbit Force (which, you may recall, got the axe in February for causing skin rashes). The Charge HR ($150) is a lot like the Charge, but it also offers continuous heart rate monitoring for better estimates of your daily caloric burn and workout intensity. Fitbit’s third new piece of hardware is the $250 Surge, which the company dubs a “super watch”—something between a fitness tracker and a full-on smartwatch.
A Head-Up Display for Your Car That Lets You Race Yourself GhostDash creates a virtual car to follow for those who want to improve their racing skills. Justin Hayes Anyone who’s played racing videogames like Gran Turismo or even Mario Kart knows the ghost car—the hologram that rides the track with you, recreating exactly the fastest lap you’ve driven. Following that car through the apexes is the best way to learn to drive consistently fast and beat your competition come race day. Justin Hayes wanted to take that videogame feature and offer it to actual drivers. So he created GhostDash, a head-up display that projects a virtual car onto the road, right in front of the driver. “Imagine you’re driving, and you do something different than normal—brake earlier, go smoother off the pedal,” says Hayes, who spends his working hours as a racing instructor. “I grew up on racing games, that’s what got me into cars,” Hayes says. The idea came from, naturally, a forum discussion among videogame racers on trackjunkies.org.
Physicists have finally proved the existence of a new superconductive state, first proposed 50 years ago After 50 years, scientists have finally proved that superconductivity can exist inside a magnetic field. It’s a breakthrough that could help scientists better understand the behaviour of the Universe and develop new technology. Scientists from Brown University in the US have finally proved that materials can conduct an electric current without resistance - an ability known as superconductivity - even when exposed to a magnetic field. They do this by entering a superconductive state that was first proposed in 1964. “It took 50 years to show that this phenomenon indeed happens,” said Vesna Mitrovic, the leader of the project, in a press release. Superconductors themselves put out a magnetic field, which is so powerful it can levitate objects, such as trains, allowing them to travel extremely fast. But for a long time, magnetic fields were the enemy of superconductivity. "The question is what happens when we have more electrons with one spin than the other," said Mitrovic in the release.
Sorry, but there are no giant caverns inside Rosetta comet A new study spearheaded by researchers from the Rheinische Institut für Umweltforschung an der Universität zu Köln, Germany, has used data collected by ESA's Rosetta spacecraft to establish that the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is devoid of any large interior caverns. It had previously been theorized that the relatively low mass of the comet in regard to its volume may have resulted from cavernous hollows within the celestial wanderer. Mankind has sent robotic pioneers to a grand total of eight comets since the advent of space exploration. The new study looked to shed light on the question, making use of Rosetta's Radio Science Experiment (RSI) to probe the interior of 67P for large hollows by measuring the gravitational effect exuded by the comet on the probe's radio signal to Earth. Upon analysis of the radio signal, it was clear that 67P was devoid of any major caverns, which would have been evidenced by drops in acceleration of the signal. Source: ESA